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Barretts, three miles beyond, also has water power, and at Elizabeth are fine magnesian limestone quarries. The rock with which the abutments of the Leavenworth bridge are built, were wrought from this quarry. Irving next beyond, ninety miles from Atchison, is located near the Big Blue River, and is the seat of "Wetmore Institute" of learning, which is under the charge of the Presbyterian Church. Irving is a thriving town, being surrounded by good farming country. Five miles beyond is Blue Rapids, located at one of the best water powers in the State. It is being extensively improved by an enterprising colony, at a heavy expense. The orgnization was known as the Genesee colony from Western New York, and they publish that they chose the site because of "facility of transportation, railroad station, fuel, excellent building stoce, sand in the river, good land, picturesque scenery, and unfailing water power for the machinery of ten or twenty mills." They as ert that "temperance, morality, education and religion are the bases and bulwarks of good society and permenent prosperity. The town was laid out February, 1870, and has been greatly prospered.

The claims of this col ny, as to advantages of location, and the platform of membership, are published, not because of their novelty, but to illustrate why it is that settlers, singly and in colonies, are attracted to Kansas in greater numbers than to any other State, and also why it is that Kansas society is confessedly so excellent. If we except the water power-for I do not claim that all the towns in Kansas have available water power-I am confident that a considerable proportion of the towns in this State were started upon the same basis as that of Blue Rapids.

West of the latter place, and one hundred miles from Atchison, is the promising young town of

WATERVILLE. It is, at this writing, (January, 1871,) but about two years old. Lots which six months ago sold for twenty to seventy-five dollars each, are now selling at one hundred to three hundred dollars each. This rise in real estate is a fair average of the percentage of rise in Kansas towns at their most prosperous stage. Being the westernmost railroad town in the vicinity, Waterville commands the trade of an extensive frontier, and has about twenty-five or thirty stores, with banks, fine hotels, churches, etc. Its depot is one hundred and ten feet long. It is expected that one or two more railroads will center here.

Stages run to Marysville, Washington, Clyde and Concordia. The town has a fine water power, extensive quarries of white magnesian limeston, and large fields of gypsum are found in the vicinity.

It is proposed soon to resume work upon the C. B. U. P. R. R., pushing it westward in the neighborhood of the lie as shown on our map. The country through which the road will be built, is among the most des rable in the State, being supplied with everything that is needed to support a dense population.


The Saint Joseph & Denver City Railroad commences on the west bank of the Missouri River, at Elwood in Kansas, opposite to the city of St. Joseph, Missouri. From the little village of Elwood the read runs across the Missouri River bottom, a distance of about six miles to

WATHENA -This city, of about 1,500 inhabitants, is the largest town in Doniphan county. It is situated just within the valley of Peter's Creek, where the latter opens from the bluff on either side into the Missouri River bottom. The stream furnishes a good water power, which is improved by a flouring mill and woolen factory, while another mill is run by steam. The public school building is claimed to be one of the finest in the State. A railroad is projected down the Missouri bott m to Doniphan, in the southeast portion of the county, there to intersect the Atchison & Nebraska Railroad. From Wathena our railroad follows up Peter's Creek to TROY, the county seat of Doniphan county. This place is situated on high ro`'ling prairie, where the stream we have been following heads in numerous springs in and around the town. This place also boasts of its fine public school. The population is about 1,000.

About a mile southwest of Troy the road we are following is crossed by the Atchison & Nebraska R. R. Continuing westward we pass Norway and Severance, new and growing railroad stations, with a considerable grain trade.

Entering Brown county we pass the new town of St. Francis and reach HIAWATHA, the county seat. The town is pleasantly situated on high rolling prairie in the midst of a good country. It has the usual complement of churches and schools, and an enterprising population. At Padona, a few mi'es northwest a good mill is build ng to be run by water. Other mills run by steam are convenient for the people. Coal is 'extensively used for domestic purposes in this county, as well as in all the counties along this line, although timber is abundant.

Passing Hamlin station, we reach Sabetha, which is situated just in the edge of Nemaha county. A short distance to the north is Albany, and southward is Capiona, which are the post office centres for a thrifty farming population. It is proposed to run a railroad through this vicinity to connect the Nebraska and Kansas railroads. Passing another station, the name of which is unknown to me, we reach the thriving town of

SENECA, the county seat of Nemaha county. It has a population of about 1000, and is situated on gently sloping table land on the west bank of the Nemaha river, which runs northward into Nebraska. Seneca contains a fine stone school house, churches, etc., and is growing rapidly. Nine miles to the south is Centralia, on the C. B. U. P. R. R., and a daily stage connects the two places. A railroad will soon be built from the C. B. U. P R. R., from some convenient point southeast of Seneca to this place. It will be about fourteen miles long, and will make the distance from Seneca to Atchison sixty-four miles, while it is seventy-seven miles to St. Joseph.

The road over which we are passing was opened to travel since January 1, 1871, and stations are not established at all needful points, as yet. The next town, and the present terminus of the road, is

MARYSVILLE, the county seat of Marshall county. It is situated on the east bank of the Big Blue River, on high sloping bottom, and the adjacent bluffs. It has a population of 800 or 1000 people, and is rapidly growing. The river affords an excellent water power. Upon its rocky bed a dam is built of stone, whence the water is conveyed several rods through a tunnel in the solid rock, to the mill below. A good bridge spans the river. The counties through which this road, as well as the C. B. U. P. railroad passes, are among the most desirable in the State for farming purposes. A large amount of wheat is raised in these counties, and probably more spring wheat than in any other portion of Eastern Kansas, although winter wheat succeeds admirably here. These counties are quite well settled, as will be seen from the census returns. Timber is abundant, and the climate is healthy, but of course a little more hay is required to carry stock through the winter, than in Southern Kansas. This Railroad is to be built northwest, striking the Little Blue, and following up that stream into Nebraska and to Fort Kearney, where it connects with the Union Pacific Railroad.


The Atchison & Nebraska Railroad commences at Atchison, as its name indicates, although there is talk of connecting it with the Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galveston road, at Lawrence, both being chiefly under one ownership.

From Atchison this road runs on the Missouri River bottom lands to Doniphan, a town of several hundred people, with a large grain trade, whence it elimbs a considerable grade, following Rock Creek and passing Brenner Station, crossing the St. Joseph & Denver road near Troy. Beyond is down grade to the stations of Fanning and Highland Station. The latter is connected by stage from the trains with Highland, a village of 300 or 400 enterprising people, situated on high rolling prairie, in a densly settled farming community. The place is the scat of H‍ghland University, an excellent school for both sexes. A shaft is being sunk at this place for coal, which crops out in several places in the county. Iowa Point, a small village on the Missouri River, is the next station.

WHITE CLOUD is the last station on this road in the State of Kansas, and is the northeastern town of the State. It is well situated for business on the Missouri River, and has an extensive trade with that part of Kansas, as well as the adjacent portions of Nebraska and Missouri. The population is about 1,200. On the opposite or eastern side of the Missouri River runs another railroad, from which a branch or spur is building, or about to be built, to White Cloud. The town has good churches, &c., and is surrounde! by a rich country and an abundance of timber. It has several saw mills in the vicinity, and manufactures more lumber than any other town in the State,

This road is now building into Nebraska, to Brownsville, and on up the Missouri River.

I am informel that the elevations furnished me on this road and inserted upon my map, were incorrect, and that the figures should be as follows, showing the elevations of depots in feet above the ocean level: Atchison, 800;

[graphic][subsumed][merged small]

Doniphan, 835; Brenner, 947; Troy Junction, 1,121; Fanning, 888: Highland Station, 871; Iowa Point, 852; White Cloud, 864,


This railroad commences at the State line, near Kansas City, and passing through Wyandotte, follows the Missouri River, with unimportant stations, which are sown on the accompanying map, to Leavenworth, thence up the river to Atchison. The road is chiefly owned in Leavenworth, but is leased to and run by, the Missouri Pacific Railroad.


Commencing at Junction City, the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad, was constructed ac.oss the divide between the waters of the Kansas and the Neosho rivers and down the valley of the latter into the Indian Territory. It was formerly known as the Neosho Valley Railroad, and still later as the Southern Branch Union Pacific. Leaving the depot at Junction City, which is common to this road and the K. P. R., we follow up the considerable grade which leads us across Clark's creek to Skiddg, and across the divide to Parker, on the upper waters of the Neosho River. Extensive settlements have recently been made in this region by colonies from various localities, and especially from Chicago, Illinois, and another from Cincinnati, Oh o. At Parkersville, which is a new place, preparations are making for a speedy enlargement of the business facilities. This place is 1,339 feet above the ocean, its elevation being but a trifle less than that of Brookville on the Kansas Pacific, seventy miles west.

COUNCIL GROVE is situated on the Neosho, and was a well known trading post upon the old Santa Fe wagon road. It is the county seat of Morris county, and contains a population of about 1000. It is situated just outside of the boundary of the Kansas or Kaw Indian Reserve, which is about to be opened to settlement. Coal mines of fair quality are opened in this county, and in Lyon county adjoining. This enterprising place is expecting another Eastern railroad to be soon construc ed.

Going down the widening valley of the Neosho, we pass the growing station of Americus, whic is situated in a very desirable farming region and is the promising business centre for a thriving country. Here as in Kansas style, is a good stone school house, and a cheese factory is located here, which uses the milk of about 350 cows. The village has 300 or 400 inhabitants. A valuable unimproved water power on the Neosho river is near Americus.

EMPORIA is distant 60 miles from Junction City and 61 miles from Topeka, with which it is connected by the Atchison and Topeka and Santa Fe R. R. It is located on an undulating prairie between and near the Neosho and Cottonwood, and a few miles from the junction of these streams. It is the county seat of Lyon county, and contains a population of about 3,000 people. The valleys about Emporia are famous for their well tilled farms, and the town commands a very extensive trade, owing to its advantageous position relative to the vast and rapidly growing region laying south and west. The citizens also lock with confidence for the specd cons ruction of another railroad from the direction of Ottawa. Many fine business houses, private reridences with churches and school houses of like character adorn the streets of this city. It has also aided greatly to its otherwise fair fame by rigorously prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors. The State Normal Schoo: is located at Emporia and is in a very prosperous condition, owing partly without doubt, to the inte est manifested by the citizens in regard to its welfare. Both the Neosho and the Cottonwood furnish water power with fine mills, and there are other unimproved water powers in the vicinity.

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