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the way of large cattle, they also may be turned in sparingly; but it is not advisable to attempt too much pasturing in the forest, as it will injure and finally ruin, even a well grown natural forest. Besides, the growth of the timber, and the value of the wood that may be taken annually therefrom, will be ample to satisfy any reasonable man.

There are many other forest trees that are valuable for various purposes, and to those who want a greater variety than I have recommended, who have means that they are willing to lay out in extra expense, or who want to grow the trees for a special object, I would suggest the following: Honey Locust, White Ash, Box Elder, Kentucky Coffee, White, Red, and Water Elm, Butternut, Chestnut Hickory, Cypress, European and American Larch, Linden, Silver Leaf Poplar, Mulberry, Catalpa, Ailanthus, White and Yellow Willow, and Hackberry, and lastly the Evergreens-the beauty and glory of the landscape, unfading, unchanging "types of the immortal," relieving more than anything else, the monotony of winter, and with their dense foliage checking and modifying the searching prairie winds. These should receive the attention of every prairie farmer, and should be planted liberally about every prairie home as soon as possible after the more pressing wants are supplied. Evergreens grow slowly for the first few years. Most varieties require two or three years to become thoroughly acclimated and are too expensive for general forest planting; but from the experience that I have had with them, and the evidence of success that I have seen with others, I am satisfied that when once established and growing on our prairie soil, they succeed as well in Kansas as farther north and east, and that good. small sized, well rooted trees may be transplanted with very little danger of failure. Too many have bought Evergreens from parties east, who advertise that they have immense quantities which they will sell for onehalf (or less) the usual price charged by nurserymen. They are little, spindling things, with scarcely any roots at all, and unused to the sun, even in their northern homes. It will be found much cheaper and more satisfactory in nearly every case to go to the nearest reliable nursery for Evergreens, paying a reasonable price therefor, or if such trees cannot be obtained at the home nursery, send to some other reliable nurseryman and order them, remembering always that it is much safer, cheaper and better to get small trees, not over two feet high, and if possible, get such as have been often transplanted. The best time to transplant Evergreens is in the spring, usually from the first to the middle of April, though I should plant earlier if ground was in good order. In handling the roots should not be exposed to the sun or air one minute longer than is absolutely necessary. The surface moisture even, should not be dried off. For general cultivation for ornament and wind breaks, I would recommend the Norway Spruce, White Austrian and Scotch Pines, Balsam Fir, Red Cedar, and American Arbor Vitæ. For amateur cultivators I would add the American White and Black Spruce, English, Irish and Swedish Juniper, Golden and Siberian Arbor Vitæ, Lowsen's Cypress, American Holly and Hemlock. I would also suggest that experiments should be made with native Evergreens from south and west, and we may find something more valuable for our Kansas

prairies than anything we now have in cultivation. A few dollars judiciously expended, and a little care in planting and tending, will in a few years give the surroundings of any prairie farm house or any Kansas home a goodly supply of well grown specimens of these most beautiful of nature's gifts.


Concerning this practical and highly valuable essay, it is proper to say that most of tree cultivators in other States, think it much better to plant the trees closer together, say in rows three or four feet apart, giving as a reason the fact that by close planting, forest trees make taller and smoother trunks, as the branches tend upward for light and air, instead of expanding laterally. Mr. Kelsey does not lose sight of this fact, but his theory is that a half a loaf is better than no bread at all. Most settlers in a new country are not able to devote land solely to the growth of forest trees, and experience in all the Western States demonstrates that of those who are able, very few can be persuaded to do it. Mr. Kelsey concedes that a better and more valuable forest can be grown by thick planting, and for those who can afford it, he advises it. But it is a question of dollars and cents and his method has the striking advantage that it is cheap.

One of the best evergreens for Kansas is the Red Cedar, which is a native of all the region west of the Missouri River, from Texas to the British Possessions. It is quite easily transplanted, and is, when young, a rapid grower. It is natural to dry, rocky and barren spots, and it is therefore not difficult to make it grow upon the open prairie.

Box Elder is another native of Western Kansas, which may be grown from the seeds that can be collected in the fall. It grows rapidly and in beautiful form until about ten or fifteen years old, after which it is inclined to be scraggy. Mr. R. S. Elliott, Industrial Agent of the K. P. Railway, says it can be

grown from cuttings, and it is well known that its sap makes a fair quality of sugar.

Osage Orange is almost a native of Kansas, as it grows wild in the Indian Territory not far from our southern border. It matures its seeds here, which

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are held in a ball much like a small orange, whence its name. In its wild state it attains the height of forty to sixty feet. This is a very valuable tree for general cultivation. It grows rapidly, its wood is hard and durable, and it makes an excellent wind break. In this regard it stands next to evergreens

from its multitude of small limbs. A belt a rod or two in width, almost entirely breaks the force of the wind. Mr. Kelsey has said enough about hedge rows, but I urge the planting of this tree for wind breaks. Plants a year old can be had for $1.50 to $2.25 per thousand, according to quality and quantity. Or it may be plantd for forests where it is to grow. A pound of the seed will make from 3000 to 4000 plants or trees. This tree would soon furnish excellent railroad ties. Concerning wind breaks, a good shelter is afforded on the prairies even by a clump of hazle bushes, with a few scrub oaks intermixed, and not a tree over ten feet high. The low but impenetrable thicket afforded by Osage Orange, is a perfect wind break for a stock yard or for tender fruits, etc.

Efforts have been made, and I regret to add, by my friend Mr. Elliott, before mentioned, to induce the planting of Black Locust in Kansas, in the vain hope that the borers will not kill it. (This tree must not be confounded with the Honey or Thorny Locust, a short, stout tree, with long thorns, and with a sweet substance in its seed pods, whence its name. The Honey Locust is a native of Kansas, and is perfectly hardy but a slow grower.) This tree is so easily grown from cheap seed and looks so handsome and promising for a few years, that there is a great temptation to plant it. But it has been tried over and over again in Kansas and it universally fails, first or last, just as it fails in all prairie countries, after it is about a dozen years old, by its limbs being cut at the trunk by a borer; no bounty is paid for it it under our State law. Prof. Chas. V. Riley, State Entomologist of Missouri, being quoted as saying that it was not injured by borers when planted in groves, I wrote him, saying that I believed the tree should be utterly discarded, and received the following letter:

"Never give a man's opinion from the curta

reports of what he says. I am often reported as saying the most outrageous things.

"If I were to give my opinion in three words, I should state that with regard to the Black Locust, you are correct. There are, however, qualifying conditions and circumstances. The borer is not so bad on high limestone lands—may be in a measure prevented by the proper use of soap and the killing of the beetles during September. The central trees in large groves are less subject to attack than those on the outside, and where fuel or posts are needed the young trees will generally take the place of the old ones as fast as they are killed or cut down. I have my

reasons for believing that the tree should not under certain conditions be discarded from your Kansas list; but why urge the Black Locust, when there are other and better trees? Whatever reporters make me say, I have never done so."

Hastily, yours truly,


The Chestnut is a valuable and beautiful tree and a grove will well pay for the trouble of cultivation simply by fattening swine on the nuts, to say nothing of the timber. This tree, wherever I have noticed it in a natural forest, grows upon a light or sandy soil, or at least upon well drained land. It is yet uncertain how it will do on the deep, rich soil of the prairies, or on the drier western plains.

It is believed by many of those whose experi ence gives weight to their opinions, that the European Larch is the best tree for general planting. As it is propagated only from seeds, and requires very skillful treatment when young, it is an expen sive tree to plants in quantities. Robert Douglas, of Illinois, who has done very much to bring this tree before the public, says: "It is undoubtedly the most valuable timber tree for extensive planting;

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