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contingent provision against storms, the convenience by railroads for marketing mutton or wool, and finally the fact that all these advantages are offered absolutely without cost, these inducements ought to bring millions of sheep to Kansas this year. Sheep do not need grain when they have access to buffalo grass. Many flocks are herded in New Mexico and Colorado without feed, excepting grass, and without shelter except timber or bluffs, and the business is extremely profitable if taken in hand by those who understand and like it.

In that region two or three shepherds often start off with their flock of 2,000 head, taking a team, perhaps of oxen, and a wagon laden with provisions, a tent, and conveniences for camping. They permit the flock to range pretty much at pleasure, following with the team at the rate of one to five miles per day, and camping when night overtakes them. Having several trained shepherd dogs, who keep on the outskirts of the flock, it is not much trouble, by taking turns on guard, to keep the little prairie wolves, or coyotes, at a distance. At times finding good pasturage, water and shade, they may remain a week at one encampment. They keep goats or a cow or two for milk, while the flock supplies them with fat and juicy meat.

This romantic, easy-going and vagabond sort of life, is followed from shearing time until cold weather, by which time they will have returned to the vicinity of their homes. Here they find the grass which has been growing all summer, ready cured for winter use, and their flocks can stay on the "home range" for several months. There are many puny boys and men, dragging out a pampered and miserable existance in the east, to whom a summer's campaign of this sort on the high, rolling, healthy pasture fields of Western Kansas, would give a new lease of life. Health for the feeble and good

pay for all, awaits those who enter the sheep business in those regions.

I speak with the utmost confidence, when saying that Western Kansas offers extraordinary advan



tages for raising wool or mutton. I speak with feeling when I call to mind the fact that there are thousands of wool-growers in the east who are upon the verge of ruin from the low price of wool, coupled with the high price of land. They are almost ready to give away their flocks, but by bringing them here

they can, even at present prices, not only save themselves, but enrich themselves at the business. Mr. Jesse Connell, a wealthy farmer near Leavenworth City, who has lived upon the border for thirty years, informed me some years ago, that with wool at twenty-five cents per pound at Leavenworth, he could double his money every year on sheep, by taking them where there was free pasturage, and by giving them personal supervision.

This subject is so important and is fraught with so much of good to those wool-growers who will heed what is proven, that I solicited a letter upon the subject from Dr. Bocking, of Alma, Wabaunsee county, who has had extensive experience in many parts of the world, including South America and Australia. His reply is given as follows:

"Kansas by its climate, soil, water, and short winters, is eminently a wool growing country, and was selected for a home by me four years ago. My experience on sheep in Europe and in the Branda Oriental del Uruguay of South America, during four years, (from 1857 to 1861,) gave me a taste for woolraising, having had under my superintendency on Mrs. Wendelstadt's farm, on the Rio Negro, as many as 72,000 head.


"To commence with the trade, one has to decide himself beforehand, if he wants to raise for the butcher or for the improvement of wool; both being a business altogether apart, and much depending on the circumstances given. To go sure, and I intend to walk that path, raising for the carcass is for the present state of our communications the most advisable, and may afterwards, when a good foundation is laid, easily be turned to the other. If a man with large means intends to raise for wool merely, or principally, I leave it open to him to select Negrettes or Comb wools, as both will pay with neces

sary care; and although I belong to the old merino school, I am last to deny the qualities of a Cotswold.

"The stock to commence with, is our native stock anyhow, and this sheep can be had amply in Michigan, some parts of Iowa, northern Illinois, and the very best in Ohio. Keep out of Missouri flocks, or elsewhere, where there is principally a timber pasture. Not more than a thousand head should be herded in one flock, except where there are wethers enough already to be herded separately with the rams to the middle of November, when the latter may be put among the ewes for a fortnight.

"For a shepherd not everybody is tit, the more the man loves his kind of stock, and the more easy tempered he is, the better it will be for the owner. An old man will generally do better than young ones, and rather abstain from the aid of dogs if you are not convinced of the phlegm of your herdsman and the thorough training of your collies. Fat flocks can not be attained with a lad exhausting his pony and his sheep with needless disturbance. About the summer care, much need not be told. Turn the flock out after dew, that they have ample time yet to fill before eleven, then let them lay down to ruminate, and past the midday heat herd them slowly homeward, not forgetting the water, because contrary to the general opinion, your sheep are great drinkers. But starting from the siesta, (range,) let the herdsman look after sleepy lambs that they get the necessary awakening. When the flies become very troublesome, I find it better to stay all night on some lofty spot, rather than to shut them up in the corrall. In winter, as sheds are mostly nothing but "pia desideria," let your flock enjoy the most protected spot of timber accessible to you. Do not grow impatient when you see the ewes' wool hanging loose around their sides early in spring, it is not yet clipping time. The lambs should not

come before the middle of April, and they should all be there at the first of May. That the owner morning and evening be always at the spot to inspect the tail of his flock is a matter of course; of foot-rot and divers complaints, he will not find much, and a little pine tar in an eggshell will generally perform the cure, but itch in rainy seasons he will find to beware of. Of herbs poisonous to sheep, there is not a single one known to me in Kansas.

"Now about the dollars and cents. To keep less than five hundred will not pay, and many a good farmer of my acquaintance has become sheep-sick by a little flock that annoyed him by its intrusions and daily damages in summer in the fields, and in winter on the haystacks and in the orchard. The sheep are to be herded and kept under a careful eye all the time. You cannot turn them out at large like horses and cattle. But with eight hundred ewes (as a minimum) and thirty-two rams, the business will pay. With eight hundred, the wool, (four` pound a piece, and at an average price of twenty-two cents per pound, at the nearest railroad depot) will pay the expenses, (herdsman, hay, shelter, salt, loss, etc.,) and the lambs will be your profit, but with a thousand your books will show other results, and the more if you ship your fleece directly east. My experimental flock gave me 75 per cent twin lambs, of good constitution, and as we need not, in Kansas, kill the buck lambs for want of milk in the mothers' udders, which is the case on the Rio de la Platte and in Australia, by the first of September your young ones will hardly be discernible from the old ones. Your expended capital of $3.00 will bring you 80 cents interest in wool, which is equal to the running expenses and customary losses, and you have besides a sure offspring that will double your principal capital every two years, as sure as death and taxes, if

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