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Prices of beef cattle in Chicago, Illinois, per hundred,

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Average price for six years, $3.24 to $7.61. The average expense of shipment per head, from the Missouri River to Chicago, is about five dollars.

Arrangements have been perfected by which it is expected to send fresh beef and buffalo to New York and other eastern cities from Kansas, during this summer, in Rankin's Patent Refrigerator cars, an invention of one of our citizens, Mr. T. L. Rankin, of Lyndon, Osage county. Experimental trips were made last year with eminent success. The car is

nearly air tight, and contains ice, and beef in quarters can be sent in perfect order, at less rates than when shipped alive, as thirty head can be carried, while but eighteen live bullocks usually go in a car. Meat was carried 100 hours in one of these cars, from July 25 to August 1st, 1870, at a temperature of 50 to 55 degrees. The walls are composed of fifteen separate and tight partitions, made of wood and paper, with spaces between.

The Hearth and Home, of New York City, for February 4, 1871, contains an illustrated article upon this subject, showing that our exhaustless meat supply is to be carried to the door of our eastern friends.

A new class of stock cars are also put on to railroads this year for the first time, called Steel's palace stock cars. In these cars, cattle are watered and fed while in transit, and the time to New York or any other distant point is less than half that required under the old system of transporting live stock.

The foundations are being laid for giving Kansas

a reputation, as to the quality of its stock, equaled only by the profit with which it is reared.

Many very fine breeding animals have been brought to this State at great expense to their owners. Among those who have considerable herds of thorough-bred and full blood Short Horn cattle, are Judge N. L. Chaffe & Sons, Manhattan; Andrew Wilson, Topeka; John Inlow, Olathe; I. N. Insley, Oskaloosa; Wm. S. Pickrell, Ottawa; Mr. Moler, of Anderson county. Among those with thoroughbred or full blood Jersey cattle, are, I. S. Kalloch, Lawrence; E. A. Smith, Lawrence; Rev. Winfield Scott, Leavenworth, and others. Hon. S. C. Pomeroy, United States Senator, also has upon his farm at Muscotah, some thorough-bred Holstein cattle, which are famous for combining the qualities of good milkers, docility, size, and a readiness to take un fat.

All those gentlemen mentioned above, and many others, have fine herds of swine, including fine stock of all the best breeds; Berkshire, Essex, Poland China, Suffolks, Chester White, etc. Alfred Gray, Secretary of Kansas State Agricultural Society, has upon his farm at Wyandotte, probably the finest lot of Berkshires in the west. He has visited all the breeders of note in the United States and the Canadas, and has purchased the best animals he could find. He has made this business a speciality for several years, with eminent success.


Perhaps there is no branch of ordinary husbandry at which one should serve a longer apprenticeship before entering upon it for himself, than the raisin of sheep. Sheep must have care and attention thrive anywhere, and it is not advisable for m or for boys as has often been the case in Kans



who are utterly ignorant of the business to commence it with a large flock.

The cattle business is so easily learned, gives so little trouble, and is so safe and profitable, that nearly all who have any inclination to the stock business, seek herds of cattle rather than flocks of sheep, but there are many million head of sheep in Ohio and States west of it, that must in some way be handled by their owners, who are greatly dispirited by the low price of wool. Such flocks should be driven to Kansas. There are also multitudes who own poor or profitless farms in those States, who understand the sheep business, and could easily and profitably convert their farms into sheep and bring their sheep here to be converted into cash, not by selling, but by keeping. For the benefit of these, and other interested people, let us glance at the sheep business in Kansas.

The pasturage is boundless and it is good. If left to themselves sheep will keep the grass down in certain places by close feeding. The short fresh herbage is more sweet and nutritious, and the ground is also drier under their feet than would be tall grass, from which the dews and rains do not so quickly dry out. This is also an advantage in cases of foot rot. From this disease many flocks of sheep have been cured by bringing them to Kansas. The climate is more congenial to sheep as well as man, than the damp atmosphere of regions east of the Mississippi, and our comparative freedom from mud is another great advantage over the older western States. By herding sheep on a moderately close, rather than a wide range, never driving or hurrying them, and giving them a plenty of water and salt, they are kept during the summer at a trifling cost, and in good condition.

It is the almost universal opinion among men of experience, that sheep do not do as well if fed ex

clusively on prairie hay. It is said that it has a constipating effect upon them, which it does not upon other stock, and that to correct this, a small feed of corn should be given every day through the winter, giving them hay and corn as soon as the frost strikes the grass. By commencing to feed corn early, a very little with prairie hay will keep them in excellent order. An amount equal to about a half bushel per head for the winter, is considered sufficient with good hay. If sheep are fed upon corn fodder, as is frequently and profitably the case, this is deemed sufficient. Many feed sheaf oats instead of corn, and think them even better. But for large profits in wintering sheep in Eastern Kansas, one should have blue grass pastures or winter rye for grazing. With access to either, there are not upon the average, two weeks in the entire winter, but that sheep will keep fat without other feed. sheep do better to be protected from the occasional winter rains, and I think it wrong to ask people to bring their flocks here without informing them that they will be well repaid in money as well as in comfort of mind, by providing rough shelter for their



But the best place in Kansas for keeping large flocks of sheep, yes the best place in the United States, all things considered, is the buffalo grass region of Western Kansas. The altitude and dryness of the atmosphere and consequent freedom from disease in these regions, the comparative exemption from winter rains, the boundless range upon the short, sweet and nutritious grasses which afford feed of about equal value the year round, the abundant supply of pure and palatable water, the overhanging bluffs and ledges, and skirts of timber and various conveniences for making a shelter for the weak and helpless, the excellent grass for hay, of which a few pounds per head should be put up as a

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