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Ineffectual Efforts in Parliament for the Relief of Ireland 395 Motion of Mr. Fox for the Removal of Lord Sandwich ib. Committee of Enquiry respecting the American War.. ib. Motion of Lord Bristol for the Removal of the Earl of

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Alternate Successes of the American and British Arms 404

Capture of St. Vincent's and Grenada by the French

Count d'Estaing repulsed at Savannah

Charlestown taken by Sir H. Clinton ...



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Combined Fleets of France and Spain enter the Channel 412 Alarming Situation of Ireland


Serapis Man of War taken by Captain Paul Jones.... 415 Misunderstanding between the Courts of London and

the Hague....

Pondicherry captured by the English...

Senegal taken by the French









REVIEW of American Transactions. Petition of the Massachusett's Assembly to the King. New Modifica tion of the American Tea Duty. Tumults consequent thereupon in the Colonies. Session of Parliament. Boston Port Bill. Bill for subverting the Charter of Massachusetts. Bill for the Subversion of the Judicial Power in the Province of Massachusetts. Bill for the Establishment of Despotism in Canada. Speech of Lord Chatham on American Affairs. Motion for the Repeal of the Duty on Tea-Supported by Mr. Burke-His Character. Proceedings in America. General Congress convened at Philadelphia. First Petition of the Congress to the King. Memorable Speech of Lord Chatham on moving to withdraw the Troops from Boston. Petitions presented to Parliament against the War, consigned to the Committee of Oblivion. Parliament refuses

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to hear Evidence on the Congress Petition. Lord Chatham's Bill for settling the Troubles in America REJECTED. America declared to be in Rebellion. Fishery and Restraining Bills passed. Lord North's conciliatory Propositions. Mr. Burke's conciliatory Propositions. Mr. Hartley's conciliatory Propositions. Petition to the King from the City of London, presented by Mr. Wilkes, Lord Mayor. Trivial Concessions granted to Ireland. Application to Parliament from the Province of New York rejected. Hostilities commenced at Lexington. Lord North's Propositions rejected by the Congress. Battle of Bunker's Hill. Second Petition of Congress to the King. The King refuses to answer it. American Invasion of Canada. General Howe abandons Boston. Conduct of the Indian Nations.

BOOK THE unfortunate disputes with the American colonies, revived by the imposition of the port duties in 1767, had since that fatal period sufReview of fered no interruption or abatement, though very much kept out of sight by those vehement domestic contests in which the English nation felt itself for the time more nearly interested, though of far less real and lasting importance. A general retrospective view of colonial politics will be necessary, to illustrate and introduce the momentous transactions of the succeeding years. In the act of imposing the port duties on paper, glass, colors, teas, &c. passed A. D. 1767, was a remarkable clause, which gave scarcely less umbrage and alarm than the taxes themselves, empowering the crown by sign manual to esta



blish a general CIVIL LIST throughout every BOOK province in America, to an indefinite extent, with any salaries, places, or appointments, to the very last shilling of the American revenue. The act indeed provided, that after all such ministerial warrants under the sign manual as are thought proper and necessary shall be satisfied,

the residue of the revenue shall be at the disposal of Parliament. But who, it was asked, can suppose such warrants will ever be satisfied, till ministers have provided for all their friends and favorites. This mockery of an American revenue proves at last, said a member of the house (Mr. Hartley), to be only the crumbs that fall from the minister's table-the RESIDUE of a royal warrant countersigned by the first lord of the Treasury! The next step in the progress of the new system of American taxation was the establishment of an American board of commissioners, which, under the auspices of the chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr. Charles Townshend, passed into an act the same session. This board was fixed at Boston, where the commissioners arrived in the autumn of that


The non-importation agreement entered into by the colonies, in consequence of the rash and unadvised measures adopted by England, have been already noticed; but though they confined their practical opposition to their commercial

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