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harm from king Hemeid, who often plundered that monas-
tery and the parish of St Deguus, † and sometimes expelled
the prelates, as they expelled archbishop Novis, my relation,
and myself; if in any manner I could secure the notice and
friendship of the king.

At that time, and long before, all the countries on the right
hand side of Britain belonged to king Alfred and still be-
long to him. For instance, king Hemeid, with all the
inhabitants of the region of Demetia, compelled by the vio-
lence of the six sons of Rotri, had submitted to the dominion
of the king. Houil also, son of Ris, king of Gleguising,
and Brochmail and Fernmail, sons of Mouric, kings of Gwent,
compelled by the violence and tyranny of earl Eadred and
of the Mercians, of their own accord sought king Alfred,
that they might enjoy his government and protection from
him against their enemies. Helised, also, son of Teudyr,
king of Brecon, compelled by the force of the same sons of
Rotri, of his own accord sought the government of the afore-
said king; and Anaraut, son of Rotri, with his brothers, at
length abandoning the friendship of the Northumbrians,
from which he received no good but harm, came into king
's presence and eagerly sought his friendship. The
king received him honourably, admitted him as his son by
confirmation from the bishop's hand, and presented him with
many gifts. Thus he became subject to the king with all
his people, on the same condition, that he should be obedient
to the king's will in all respects, in the same way as Æthered
with the Mercians.

Nor was it in vain that all these princes gained the
friendship of the king. For those who desired to augment
their worldy power, obtained power; those who desired
money, gained money; and in like way, those who desired
his friendship, or both money and friendship, succeeded in
getting what they wanted. But all of them gained his love
and guardianship and defence from every quarter, even as the
king with his men could protect himself.
When therefore I had come into his presence at the royal
vill, called Leonaford, I was honourably received by him, and
remained that time with him at his court eight months; during
which I read to him whatever books he liked, and such as we
had at hand; for this is his most usual custom, both night
and day, amid his many other occupations of mind and body,
either himself to read books, or to listen whilst others read
them. And when I frequently asked his leave to depart,
and could in no way obtain it, at length when I had made
up my mind by all means to demand it, he called me to
him at twilight, on Christmas eve, and gave me two letters,
in which was a long list of all the things which were in
two monasteries, called in Saxon, Angresbury¶ and Banu-
wille; and on that same day he delivered to me those two
monasteries with all the things that were in them, and a silken
pall of great value, and a load for a strong man of incense,
adding these words, that he did not give me these trifling
presents, because he was unwilling hereafter to give me
greater; for in the course of time he unexpectedly gave me
Exeter, with all the diocese which belonged to him in Saxony§
and in Cornwall, besides gifts every day without number in
every kind of worldly wealth, which it would be too long to
enumerate here, lest they should make my reader tired.
But let no one suppose that I have mentioned these pre-
sents in this place for the sake of glory or flattery, or to
obtain greater honour. I call God to witness, that I have

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not done so; but that I might certify to those who are ignorant, how profuse he is in giving. He then at once gave me permission to ride to those two rich monasteries and afterwards to return to my own country.

A. 886.
Here the army, which before
had drawn eastward, went
westward again, and thence
up the Seine, and there took
up their winter quarters near
the town of Paris.

That same year king Elfred repaired London; and all the English submitted to him, except those who were under the bondage of the Danishmen; and then he committed the town to the care of alderman Æthered.

In the year of our Lord's in-
carnation, 886, which was
the thirty-eighth since the
birth of Elfred, the army so
often beforementioned again
fled the country, and went
into the country of the West-
ern Franks, directing their
ships to the river called the
Seine, and sailed up it as far
as the city of Paris, and there
they wintered and measured
out their camp. They be-
sieged that city a whole year,
as far as the bridge, that they
might prevent the inhabitants
from making use of it; for
the city is situated on a small
island in the middle of the
river; but by the merciful
favour of God, and the brave
defence of the citizens, the
army could not force their

way inside the walls.
In the same year, Elfred,
king of the Anglo-Saxons,
after the burning of cities
and the slaying of the people,
honourably rebuilt the city
of London, and made it
again habitable. He gave it
into the custody of his son-
in-law, Ethered, earl of

To which king all the
Angles and Saxons, who
before had been dispersed
everywhere, or were in cap-
tivity with the pagans,
voluntarily turned and sub-
mitted themselves to his

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The whole of this paragraph

an interpolation, because it is not known to have existed in more than one MS. copy.

[In the same year there arose a foul and deadly discord at Oxford, between Grymbold, with those learned men whom concerning Oxford is thought to be he had brought with him, and the old scholars whom he had found there, who, on his arrival, refused altogether to embrace the laws, modes, and forms of prælection instituted by the same Grymbold. During three years there had been no great dissension between them, but there was a secret enmity which afterwards broke out with great atrocity, clearer than the light itself. To appease this quarrel, that invincible king Ælfred, having been informed of the strife by a messenger from Grymbold, went to Oxford to put an end to the controversy, and endured much trouble in hearing the arguments and complaints which were brought forwards on both sides. The substance of the dispute was this: the old scholars con






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In the year of our Lord's incarnation 886, the 38th from the birth of the glorious king Elfred, that army of Danes not to be named came again into the country of the Western French, and came to land in the river called Sigene [SEINE]. They also went to Paris, and wintered there, cutting off the thoroughfare of the bridge from the inhabitants. But by the true support of God, and the valour of the citizens in defending themselves, they could not break into that fortress.

In the same year Elfred, King Alfred besieged Lon

don, because a great force of
Danes had pursued the
French army.
All the English at once sub-
mitted to him and admitted
for the Danes had

king of the Anglo-Saxons, after the burning of cities and the slaying of the people, honourably rebuilt the city of London, and made it again habitable. He gave it into the custody of his sonin-law, Ethered, earl of But the king gave the city


To which king all the Angles and Saxons, who before had been dispersed everywhere, or were in captivity with the pagans,

voluntarily turned and submitted themselves to




into the care of duke Ædred.

At the same time the king of the English, after the burning of cities, and the slaughter of people, honourably rebuilt and made habitable the great city of London, which he gave into the ward of Ethelred the illus

trious duke of the Mercians. But all men, both Angles and Saxons, who had before been dispersed here and there with the pagans or set free from captivity, came freely into the king's presence, submitting themselves voluntarily to his dominion. And he, as he was of a most merciful mind, indulged to all the patronage of his benignity.

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tended, that literature had flourished at Oxford before the coming of Grymbold, although the number of scholars was smaller than in ancient times, because many had been driven away by the cruelty and tyranny of the pagans. They also proved and showed, by the undoubted testimony of ancient annals, that the orders and institutions of that place had been sanctioned by certain pious and learned men, as for instance by Saint Gildas, Melkinus, Nennius, Kentigern, and others, who had all grown old there in literature, and happily administered everything there in peace and concord; and also, that Saint Germanus had come to Oxford, and stopped there half a year, at the time when he went through Britain to preach against the Pelagian heresy; he wonderfully approved of the customs and institutions above-mentioned. The king, with unheard of humility,listened to both sides carefully, and exhorted them again and again with pious and wholesome admonitions to cherish mutual love and concord. He therefore left them with this decision, that each party should follow their own counsel, and preserve their own institutions. Grymbold, displeased at this, immediately departed to the monastery at Winchester, which had been recently founded by king Ælfred, and ordered a tomb to be carried to Winchester, in which he proposed, after this life, that his bones should be laid in the vault which had been made under the chancel of St Peter's church in Oxford; which church the same Grymbold had built from its foundations, of stone polished with great care.]

A. 887.

Here the army went up through the bridge at Paris, and thence up along the Seine as far as the Marne, and thence up the Marne to Chezy, and then sat down, there, and on the Yonne, two winters in the two places.

In the year of our Lord's in-
carnation 887, which was the
thirty-ninth of king Ælfred's
life, the above mentioned
army of the pagans, leaving
the city of Paris uninjured,
because they could not suc-
ceed against it, sailed up the
river Seine under the bridge,
until they reached the mouth

of the river Materne
[MARNE]; where they left
the Seine, and, following
for a long time the course
of the Marne, at length, but
not without much labour,
they arrived at a place called
Caziei, a royal vill, where
they wintered one year.t

Here follows the sentence IN
under 888 at the end of Asser.

Ethelwerd 886

+ Hyde Abbey.

Now the army, which were at that time ravaging the country of Gaul, cut their way through the bridge of the citadel of Paris, and devastated the whole country along the Seine, as far as the Marne, and above its vertex, as far as Catsig [CHEZY], where they thrice fixed their winter quarters.

And that same year Charles king of the French died; and six weeks before he died, Earnulf his brother's son bereaved him of the king


In the same year Charles,
king of the Franks, went the
way of all flesh; but Arnulf,
his brother's son, six weeks
before he died, had expelled
him from his kingdom. After
his death five kings were

In the same year also died Charles, king of the Franks, and his cousin Arnulf succeeded to the kingdom, seven weeks before his uncle's


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