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4. Words, abbreviated in the manuscripts, are written at length in the Harmony; and the Arabic figures are used, for brevity's sake, instead of the Roman numerals, which are universally found in the manuscripts of the original writers.

5. As the Harmony is intended for historical and not philological purposes, the text of the chronicles is given, not in the original Latin, but in an English literal translation. But the spelling of proper names, both in the Saxon column, which gives a vernacular idiom, and in the other chroniclers, who wrote in Latin, has been carefully retained, except in cases of manifest error.

6. The whole text of the six principal chroniclers between the years 849 and 901 has been given; and, in the same way, the whole of the supplementary chronicles, and all the Charters between the same dates, have been noticed in the Harmony.

7. Wherever, in either of the columns, a paragraph has been displaced for the purpose of juxta-position, small figures, denoting the original order, have been prefixed to each paragraph, or an explanatory note has been attached. By these means the reader may for himself reconstruct the chronicle, in its original state.

849

Florence

Huntingdon

Simeon

849.

In the year of our Lord's incarnation 849, arose light out

of darkness :

ELFRED, king of the English, was born in

the royal vill, which is called Wanatinge by the English.

ALFRED, king of the Anglo-Saxons, is born in that district which is named Barrocescire, in the royal vill which is called Wanating, which district is so called

from Berroc wood, where the box tree grows

most abundantly. His genealogy is traced in

the following order. King Alfred was the son of king Ætheluulf, who was the son of Ecgbert, who was the son of Alhmund, who was

His genealogy is traced in

the following order. King Elfred was the son of king Ethelwlf, who was the son of Egberht, who was the son of Alhmund, who was

Saron Chronicle

Asser

Ethelwerd 849 mund of Eafa, Eafa of Eop- the son of Eafa, who was the his great-grandfather Eafa, pa, Eoppa of Ingild; Ingild son of Eowwa, who was the whose father was Eoppa, and was brother of Ine king of son of Ingild,-Ingild, and his great-grandfather's grandthe West-Saxons, he who held Ine, I the famous king of father was Ingild, brother of the kingdom thirty seven the West-Saxons, were two Ine, king of the Westernwinters, and afterwards went brothers. Ine went to Rome, Angles, who ended his life to St Peter, and there resig- and there ending this life at Rome; and the abovened his life; and they were honourably, entered the hea- named kings derived their the sons of Cenred, Cenred venly kingdom, to reign origin from king Cenred. of Ceolwald, Ceolwald of there for ever with Christ Cenred was the son of CeolCutha, Cutha of Cuthwine, Ingild and Ine were the sons wald, son of Cuthwine, son of Cuth wine of Ceaulin, Ceawlin of Coenred, who was the son Ceaulin, son of Cynric, son of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic, of Ceolwalde, who was the son of Cerdic, wbo also was the Cerdic of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, of Cudam, who was the son first possessor of the western Esla of Gewis, Gewis of Wig, of Cuthwine, who was the son part of Britain, after he had Wig of Freawine, Freawine of Ceaulin, who was the son defeated the armies of the of Frithogar, Frithogar of of Cynric, who was the son Britons : his father was Elesa, Brond, Brond of Bældæg, of Creoda, who was the son son of Esla, son of Geuuis, Bældæg of Woden, Woden of Cerdic, who was the son son of Wig, son of Freauuine, of Frithowald, Frithuwald of Elesa, who was the son of son of Frithogar, son of Brond, of Frealaf, Frealaf of Fri- Gewis, from whom the Bri- son of Balder, son of Quothen, thuwulf, Frithuwulf of Fin, tons name all that nation son of Frithouuald, son of Fin of Godwulf, Godwulf Gegwis, I who was the son Frealaf, son of Frithouult, of Geat,

of Brond, who was the son eon of Fin, son of Goduulfe,
of Belde, who was the son

son of Geat,
of Woden, who was the son
of Frithowalde, who was the
son of Frealaf, who was the
son of Frithuwulf, who was

|| Here are omitted the words 'who the son of Fin || Godwulf,

was the son of '; for Fin and GodI Or Ina. His memory is still who was the son of Geat,

were two distinct persons, preserved as a “household word," by the verger of Wells cathedral. which Geat the pagans long father and son. There are many

worshipped as a god. chronicles ; but it will be unnecess& Gewissæ, the West-Saxons.

ary to notice them : the parallel columns of the others will, in almost

every case, indicate and correct the Sedulius makes mention of him in his metrical poem, as

follows:

wulf

other similar errors in all the six

error.

When gentile poets with their fictions vain
In tragic language and bombastic strain
To their god Geta, comic deity.

Loud praises sing, &c.

Geat of

Geata was the son of Cætwa, son of Tetuua, Tætwa, Tætwa of Beaw, who was the son of Beaw, son of Beo, son of Scyld,

of Scef. This Scef Beaw of Sceldwa, Sceldwea who was the son of Sceldwea, son

came with one ship to an island of the ocean named Scani, sheathed in arms, and he was a young boy, and unknown to the people of that land ; but he was receiv

ed by them, and they guarded who was the son of Heremod, him as their own with much of Heremod, Heremod of who was the son of Itermod, care, and afterwards chose Itermon, Itermon of Hath

who was the son of Hathra, him for their king. It is from ra, Hathra of Hwala, Hwala who was the son of Huala,

him that king Athulf derives of Bedwig, Bedwig of Sceaf, who was the son of Bedwig,

his descent. that is, the son of Noe, he who was the son of Sem, was born in Noe's ark; Lam- who was the son of Noe, ech, Matusalem, Enoh, lae- who was the son of Lamech,

Huntingdon

were

sons

849 Florence the son of Eafa, who was the son of Eoppa, who was the son of Ingils,-Ingils and Ine, the famous king of the West--Saxons, were two brothers. Ine went to Rome, and there ending this life honourably, entered the heavenly kingdom, to reign there with Christ.— Ingils and Ine

the of Coenred, who was the son of Ceolwald, who was the son of Cutha, who was the son of Cuthwin, who was the son of Ceaulin, who was the son of Kenric, who was the son of Creodi, who was the son of Cerdic, who was the son of Elisi, who was the son of Esle, who was the son of Gewis, from whom the Britons name all that nation Gewis, who was the son of Wig, who was the son of Freawine, who was the son of Freodegar, who was the son of Brand, who was the son of Bealdeag, who was the son of Woden, who was the son of Frithewald, who was the son of Frealaf, who was the son of Pritheulf, who was the son of Finn, who was the son of Godulf, who was the son of Gæta, which Gæta the pagans long worshipped as a

god.

Simeon the son of Affa, who was the son of Eoppa, who was the son of Ingild,-Ingild and Ine were brothers. Ine was the most famous king throughout the borders of all the nation of the English, who royally ruled the kingdoms of the western regions, and, when he had passed several years in his kingdom, went to Rome, leaving his country and present kingdom, that he might possess with Christ an eternal one, which the power of the divine majesty gave to him— These were the sons of Coenred, who was the son of Ceolwold, who was the son of Guda, who was the son of Cuderwine, who was the son of Ceawlin, who was the son of Cinric, who was the son of Creoda, who was the son of Cerdic, who was the son of Elesa, who was the son of Gewis, from whom the Britons name all that nation Gegwis, who was the son of Brand, who was the son of Belde, who was the son of Woden, who was the son of Frithuwald, who was the son of Frealaf, who was the son of Fridrenwulf, who was the of Geta, whom the pagans long worshipped

son

who was the son of Cetwa, who was the son of Beawa, who was the son of Sceldwa,

who was the son of Heremod, wbo was the son of Itermod, who was the son of Hathra, who was the son of Wala, who was the son of Bedwig, who was the son of Seth, who was the son of Noah, who was the son of Lamech, who was the son of Matu

as a god. Sedulius, the famous poet, makes mention of him in his Paschal poem, beginning thus :

(vain When gentile poets with their fictions In tragic language & bombastic strain To their god Geta, comic deity,

Loud praises sing &c. Geta was the son of Cetwa, who was the son of Beaw, who was the son of Seldwa,

who was the son of Heremod, who was the son of Itermod, who was the son of Hatra, who was the son of Wala, who was the son of Bedwig, who was the son of Sem, who was the son of Noe, who was the son of Lamech, who was the son of Matusa

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Saxon Chronicle

red,' Maleel, Cainon, Enos, Seth, Adam, primus homo et pater noster, id est Christus. Amen.

CHARTERS IN 849. 1. ALHHUN bishop of Worcester. Kemble's Codex, vol. II, p. 33. 2. BERTWOLF, king of Mercia, Ib. p. 34.

Asser

who was the son of Methusalem, who was the sonof Enoch, who was the son of Malaleel, who was the son of Cainan, who was the son of Enos, who was the son of Seth, who was the son of Adam.

The mother of Alfred was named Osburgh, a religious woman, noble both by birth and by nature; she was daughter of Oslac, the famous butler of king Ethelwulf, which Oslac was a Goth by nation, descended from the Goths and Jutes, of the seed, namely, of Stuf and Wihtzur, two brothers and counts; who, having received possession of the Isle of Wight from their uncle, king Cerdic, and his son Cynric their cousin, slew the few British inhabitants whom they could find in that island, at a place called Gwihtgaraburhg; for the other inhabitants of the island had either been slain before, or escaped into exile.

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In the year of our Lord's incarnation 851, which was the third after the birth of king Alfred, Ceorl, earl of Devon, with the men of Devon fought against the pagans at a place called Wicgambeorg; and the Christians gained the victory.

And that same year the pagans first wintered in the island called Sheppey, which means the Sheep-isle, and is situated in the river Thames between Essex and Kent, but is nearer to Kent than to Essex; it has in it a fine monastery [MINSTER.

When seven years, then, had passed, Ceorl earl of Devon engages in battle against the pagans at a place called Uuiganbeorge; and they slay many of the Danes, and keep possession of the place of victory.

2 But in the course of that year the barbarians first wintered in the island of Thanet, which lies not far from Britain, and has fruitful

but not large cornfields.

851 Florence

Huntingdon

Simeon salem, who was the son of

lem, who was the son of Enoch, who was the son of

Enoch, who was the son of Jared, who was the son of

Malaleel, who was the son of Malaliel, who was the son of

Canaan, who was the son of Cainan, who was the son of

Enos, who was the son of Enos, who was the son of

Seth, who was the son of Seth, who was the son of

Adam the first man.
Adam.

But the mother of king Elfred The mother of Alfred was

was called Osburg ; she was named Osburga, a religious

a very religious woman and woman, noble both by birth

noble in disposition, which and by nature; she was

nobility she adorned with daughter of Oslac, the famous

prudence of mind. Her butler of king Ætheluulf,

father also was called Oslac; which Oslac was a Goth by

he was the devoted and nation, descended from the

faithful butler of king EthelGoths and Jutes, of the seed,

wlf. For he was sprung namely, of Stuf and Wihtgar,

from the Goths and the Jutes, two brothers and counts,

of the seed of Stuph and who, having received posses

Wihtgar, two brothers. sion of the Isle of Wight from their uncle, king Cerdic, and his son Cynric their

Having premised these cousin, slew the few British

things, let us now, as far as inhabitants whom they could

we can, pursue the course of find in that island, at a place

the work, which we have called Wihtgarabirig ; for

undertaken. the other inhabitants of the island had either been slain before, or escaped into exile. 850. On the calends of June (June 1], the eve of Whitsunday, Berhtferth, son of Berhtulf king of the Mercians, unjustly slew his relation St Wistan. Now this man was the grandson of two Mercian kings : for his father Wigmund was son of king Wiglaf, but his mother Ælfleda was daughter of king Ceoluulf. But his body, being borne to the monastery at that time so famous, named Reopedun (Repton), was buried in the mausoleum of his grandfather king Wiglaf. To his martyrdom heavenly miracles were not wanting: for from the place in which the innocent youth was slain, à column of light, stretching up to heaven, was visible for 30 days to all the neighbours of that place. 85l. Ceorl earl of Devon, The consul also named

In the year of our Lord's with the men of Devon, fought Ceorl, with the people of incarnation 851 and the third against the pagans at a place Devonshire, fought against from the birth of Alfred, earl called Wicganbeorh ; " and the pagans, and slew many, Ceorl fought against the the Christians gained the vic- and was victorious at Wien- Danes, and the Christians tory

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gained the victory over their

enemies.

orne.

And that same year the 7 This year the army of the The Danes also wintered in pagans first wintered in the pagans first stopped through the island which is called island called Sheppey, which ihe whole winter in this Sheppey, i. e. Sheep-island. means the Sheep-isle, and is

country situated on the river Thames between Essex and Kent, but is nearer to Kent than to Essex ; it has in it a fine

monastery

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