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by a wild boar; and one year before this, his brother died: he too had the western kingdom: and they were both sons of Louis, who likewise had the western kingdom, and died that year when the sun was eclipsed: he was son of Charles whose daughter Æthelwulf, king of the West-Saxons, had for his
14 And that same year a large fleet drew together against the Old-Saxons; and there was a great battle twice in that year, and the Saxons had the victory, and the Frisians were there with them.
the wild boar, was miserably before the revolution of one killed by a large animal of that species, which inflicted a dreadful wound on him with
15 That same year Charles succeeded to the western kingdom, and to all the kingdom on this side the Wendel sea, and beyond this sea, in like manner as his greatgrand-father had it, with the exception of the Lid-wiccas. Charles was Louis's son; Louis was Charles's brother, who was father of Judith, whom king Ethelwulf had; and they were sons of Louis, Louis was son of the elder Charles, Charles was Pippin's
The words in brackets are supplied from the Annals.
And that same year the army in the East-Anglia broke the peace with king Ælfred.
9 In the same year also, Charles, king of the Almains, received, with universal consent, all the territories which lie between the Tyrrhenian sea and that gulf which runs between the old Saxons and the Gauls, except the king
dom of Armorica. This Charles was the son of king Louis, who was brother of Charles, king of the Franks, father of the aforesaid queen Judith; these two brothers were sons of Louis, but Louis was the son of [the great, the ancient, and wise Charlemagne, who was
the son of] Pepin.¶
In the same year also the army of pagans, which dwelt among the East-Angles, disgracefully broke the peace which they had concluded
with king Alfred.
13 The same year Charles the Younger succeeded to the sovereignty of all the western parts of Gaul as far as the Tyrrhenian sea, and, if I may so speak, of the dominions of his grandfather, except the province of the Lidwiccas [ARMORICA OF BRETAGNE]. 14 His father was Lodvicus, brother of the middle Charles whose daughter was married to Ethelwulf king of the English.
15 Both of these were sons of Lodwicus, namely, Lodwicus was son of Charlemagne who was the son of Pepin.
In the course of that year, the above-named pestilential crew broke their engagements, and marched in arms
against king Alfred.
the wild boar, was miserably killed by a large animal of that species, whieh inflicted a dreadful wound on him with its tusk.
His brother Louis [III], who had also been king of the Franks, died the 3rd year before. These two brothers were sons of Louis, king of the Franks, who had died in the year above mentioned, in which the eclipse of the sun took place; and it was he whose daughter Judith was given by her father's wish in marriage to Ætheluulf, king of the West Saxons. In the same year also a great army of the pagans came from Germany into the country of the ancient Saxons.
To oppose them the said Saxons and Frisons joined their forces, and fought bravely twice in that same
In both those battles
the Christians, with the merciful aid of the Lord, obtained the victory.
In the same year also, Charles, king of the Almains, received, with universal consent, all the territories which lie between the Tyrrhenian sea and that gulf which runs between the old Saxons and the Gauls, except the kingdom of Armorica. This Charles was the son of king Louis, who was brother of Charles, king of the Franks, father of the aforesaid queen Judith: these two brothers were sons of Louis, but Louis was the son of [the great, the ancient, and wise Charlemagne, who was
the son of] Pepin.*
In the same year also the army of pagans, which dwelt among the East-Angles, disgracefully broke the peace which they had concluded with king Alfred.
of Louis, son of Charles the Bald, whose daughter Juhet [JUDITH] king Edelwulf had married.
* Florence, copying Asser, omits the words in brackets.
6 In that same year a great army of pagans came from Germany into the country of the Old Saxons; against whom warlike men were gathered from all sides: that is, Frisons and Saxons, and fought manfully and bravely: in which two battles the Christian people, by permission of God's merciful piety, had the victory.
Wherefore, to return to that from which I digressed, that I may not be compelled by my long navigation to abandon the port of rest which I was making for, I propose, as far as my knowledge will enable me, to speak of the life and cha-' racter and just conduct of my lord Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, after he married the above named respected lady of Mercian race, his wife; and, with God's blessing, I will despatch it succinctly and briefly, as I promised, that I may not offend the delicate minds of my readers by prolixity in relating each new event.
His nuptials were honourably celebrated in Mercia, among innumerable multitudes of people of both sexes; and after continual feasts, both by night and by day, he was immediately seized, in presence of all the people, by sudden and overwhelming pain, as yet unknown to all the physicians ; for it was unknown to all who were then present, and even to those who daily see him up to the present time,—which, sad to say! is the worst of all, that he should have protracted it so long from the twentieth to the fortieth year of his life, and even more than that through the space of so many years,from what cause so great a malady arose. For many thought that this was occasioned by the favour and fascination of the people who surrounded him; others, by some spite of the devil, who is ever jealous of the good; others, from an un
usual kind of fever.
He had this sort of severe disease from his childhood; but
For if I may be allowed to speak briefly, but in a somewhat
§ 2 Once, divine Providence so ordered it, that when he was on
a visit to Cornwall for the sake of hunting, and had turned out of the road to pray in a certain chapel, in which rests the body of Saint Guerir, and now also St Noet rests there, he prostrated himself for private devotion, and, after some time spent therein, he entreated of God's mercy, that in his boundless clemency he would exchange the torments of the malady which then afflicted him for some other lighter disease; but with this condition, that such disease should not show itself outwardly in his body, lest he should be an object of comtempt, and less able to benefit mankind ;
when he had finished his prayers, he proceeded on his journey, and not long after he felt within him that by the hand of the Almighty he was healed, according to his request, of his disorder, and that it was entirely eradicated.
1 In the flower
of his youth, he wished
to strengthen his mind in the observance of God's command-
worldly duties; and when he had often prayed with much devotion to this effect, after an interval of some time, Providence vouchsafed to afflict him with the above-named disease which he bore long and painfully for many years, and even despaired of life, until he entirely got rid of it by his prayers; but, sad to say! it was replaced, as we have said, at his marriage by another which incessantly tormented him, night and day, from the twentieth to the forty-fourth year of his life. But if ever, by God's mercy, he was relieved from this infirmity for a single day or night, yet the fear and dread of that dreadful malady never left him, but rendered hlm almost useless, as he thought, for every duty, whether human or divine.
The sons and daughters, which he had by his wife above mentioned were Ethelfloed the eldest, after whom came Eadwerd, then Æthelgeofu, then Ælfthryth, and Æthelweard, besides those who died in their infancy, one of whom was Edmund. Æthelfled, when she arrived at a marriageable age, was united to Eadred, earl of Mercia; Ethelgeofu also was dedicated to God, and submitted to the rules of a monastic life. Æthelweard the youngest, by the divine counsels and the admirable prudence of the king, was consigned to the schools of learning, where, with the children of almost all the nobility of the country, and many also who were not noble, he prospered under the diligent care of his teachers. Books in both languages, namely, Latin and Saxon, were both read in the school. They also learned to write; so that before they were of an age to practice manly arts, namely, hunting and such pursuits as befit noblemen, they became studious and clever in the liberal arts. Eadwerd and Elfthryth were bred up in the king's court and received great attention from their attendants and nurses; nay, they continue to this day, with the love of all about them, and showing affability, and even gentleness towards all, both natives and foreigners, and in complete subjection to their father; nor, among their other studies which appertain to this life and are fit for noble youths, are they suffered to pass their time idly and unprofitably without learning the liberal arts; for they have carefully learned the Psalins and Saxon books, especially the Saxon poems, and are continually in the habit of making use of books.
In the meantime, the king, during the frequent wars and other trammels of this present life, the invasions of the pagans, and his own daily infirmities of body, continued to carry on the government, and to exercise hunting in all its branches; to teach his workers in gold and artificers of all kinds, his falconers, hawkers and dog-keepers; to build houses majestic and good, beyond all the precedents of his ancestors, by his new mechanical inventions; to recite the Saxon books, and especially to learn by heart the Saxon poems, and to make others learn them; and he alone never desisted from studying, most diligently, to the best of his ability; he attended the mass and other daily services of religion; he was frequent in psalm-singing and prayer, at the hours both of the day and the night. He also went to the churches, as we have already said, in the night-time to pray, secretly, and unknown to his courtiers; he bestowed alms and largesses on both natives and foreigners of all countries; he was affable and pleasant to all, and curiously eager to investigate things unknown.
Many Franks, Frisons, Gauls, pagans, Britons, Scots, and