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sails of the vessels all to rags, and breaks off the masts, or turns the vessels over, so that they are filled with water, and sink. And sometimes the wind and waves drive the vessels upon rocks in the sea, or upon the shore, and dash them to pieces. Many poor sailors lose their lives by being at sea, when the wind blows hard.

What are sea-port towns?

What is the most important business in sea-port towns?

What vessels are called ships? Brigs and schooners? Sloops? Mention a number of articles that are brought from distant countries in vessels.


A GREAT many people belonging to sea-port towns, get their living by fishing. The sea is full of fishes, and there are a great many sorts, some large and some small. There is the halibut, a great flat fish, that swims on its broad side, and has both its eyes close together, on the top of its head. The halibut is so large and strong, that it often takes several men to pull it into the boat. It is taken with hook and line. There is the herring, a little bright, shining fish, which is caught in nets.

But the fishes of which the greatest quantities are taken, are the cod and the mackerel. The cod is a pretty large fish, commonly about a yard long, sometimes longer, and sometimes shorter. The fishermen go after the cod in small vessels. They catch the cod with hooks and lines, sometimes having clams for bait, and sometimes little fishes. The heads of the cod are cut off, and the fishes split open and salted. They are brought home, and spread in the sun to dry. Thus is made what we call salt fish, which you have often eaten for dinThe mackerel, which is also caught with hook and line, is much smaller, and much handsomer than the cod. It is about a foot long, and streaked with blue and white. The mackerel are not dried, but salted down in barrels or kegs.


There is another fish, called the whale, and he is the largest fish that swims in the sea. Indeed he is the largest living creature known in the world; for there is no animal on the land, so large as the whale. The whale is not good for food, but is taken for the sake of his oil. A part of his flesh is soft and fat, and when it is tried over the fire, a great deal of oil runs out of it. The men who catch the whales, sail a great way off upon the ocean, in

large ships; and when they come where the whales live, they see them playing upon the


When the men see a whale, they get out of their ship into their boats, and row towards him. One man stands at the head of the boat, holding a sharp iron spear in his hand, called a harpoon; and when the boat comes close to the whale, the man throws the harpoon at him with all his might. The harpoon cuts very deep into the soft flesh of the whale, and hurts him very much; so he dives down into the water to get away; but he is prevented by a long rope which is fastened at one end to the harpoon, and at the other end to the boat. The poor whale does not remain long under water; for whales breathe, as well as men, and cannot live long without coming to the top of the water for air. But as soon as he comes to the top of the water, they throw another harpoon at him, till at length he dies, and floats on the water. Then the men cut off the flesh, which contains the oil. The best oil is called sperm oil, and is taken from the head of the spermaceti whale. We burn this oil in lamps for lighting parlors and other rooms. The oil obtained from the flesh of the whale is used in dressing leather, and

for other purposes. What is called whale bone is taken from the mouth of a particular kind of whale.


What is said of the halibut?

Of what sorts of fishes are the greatest quantities taken ? What is said of the size of the whale, and of the manner of taking him?


I WILL now say something about the country towns. These towns are divided into lots and farms, and most of the people who live in them are farmers. The farmers, you know, live by cultivating the ground. They raise grass, corn, rye, oats, wheat, and barley; flax,

potatoes, turnips, hops, pumpkins, apples, and many other things. They keep cows, oxen, horses, sheep, and hogs. They make butter, and cheese, and cider; and raise hens, and geese, and turkeys. When they have more things than they want, they sell them, and buy tea, coffee, sugar, clothing, and other things, which they cannot raise on their farms.

The greater part of the inhabitants of Massachusetts are farmers; but there are many people who have no land, and so have to find some other way of getting a living. There are shoemakers, who make and mend shoes; and blacksmiths, who make iron tools, and shoe horses; carpenters and joiners, who build houses and other buildings of wood; and masons, who build brick and stone houses, walls, and chimneys; and cabinet makers, who make tables, desks, sideboards, bedsteads, and other furniture for houses. Some people are tanners, and get a living by making leather; some are bakers, some are tailors, and some are hatters. Some make jugs, bowls, milk pans and other vessels of clay, and are called potters. The tinman makes pails and other things of tin; the coopers make barrels, tubs and kegs. Some people dress cloth, and are called clothiers ; some make wagons and

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