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1812.] Remarks on Mr. Jamieson's Etymological Dictionary. 521



May 1. THE first article which I shall select from the Etymological Dictionary for the consideration of your Readers in the present communication, affords a good opportunity of vindicating the Antiquity of Rowley's Poems. It occurs under the noun Substantive

DEIS, DESS, DEAS, S. T. "The place at the head of a Hall, where the floor was [is] raised higher than the rest, and which was the honourable part. A canopy was frequently spread over it; but it is not the ca nopy, but the elevated floor, which is meant by deis." Pinkerton.

Mr. Jamieson acted wisely by copying this very accurate description of the Deis from Mr. Pinkerton; who being a Reader of Rowley, or, rather, like Mr. Jamieson, a believer in the wonderful abilities of Chatterton, I would ask these credulous gentlemen (they will pardon me for calling them so) how they could possibly have overlooked the very curious Verb belonging to this noun substantive the Deis, in the Tragycal Interlude of Ella; to whom Birtha thus addresses herself:

"Ofte have I seene thee atte the nonedaie feaste, [of pheeres, Whænne deysde bie thieselfe, for want Awhylst the merryemen dydde laughe and jeaste, [eares. Onn mee thou semest all eyne, to mee all Thou wardest mee as gyff ynn hondred feeres

Alest a daygnous looke to thee be sente, And offrendes made mee, moe thann yie [mente."


Offe scarpes of scarlette, and fyne para

Is it probable, that Thos. Chatterton was so well acquainted with this antient elevation and its name, as to be able to form a verb, together with a correct allusion to its use, in the very moment of composition? Have we not a proof to the contrary? he explained the word Pheeres" fellows, equals," because he understood it. He left deysde" seated on the deys" unexplained for the contrary reason; because he, like Mr. Tyrwhitt and Dr. Milles, did not understand it. It is, therefore, I presume, a fair logical inference that he was not the writer of the poem in which it occurs.

There are other words in this quotation worthy of notice. The Lady says to Ella, "thou wardest" for GENT. MAG. June, 1812.

"thou regardest me," which the frequent commutation of the letters wand g justifies and accounts for. She adds, that he was fearful lest she might send a deignous looke towards him. Deign. ous for disdainful, is a word used by Chaucer, and not difficult to be found; but there is another of the same family less common: it occurs in the 3d Eclogue, where the reverend Divine' is moralising:

"Attourne thine eyne arounde thys haied mee,

Tentyfflie loke arounde the chaper delle
An answere to thie bargainette here see,
Thys welked flourette wylle a lesson telle.
Arist it blew, itte florished, and dyd welle,
Lokeynge ascaunce upon the naighboure
[nome felle.".
Yet with the deigned greene yttes ren-

The only work in which I have met with this, is the Rewarde of Wickednesse, a poem by Richard Robinson, servaunt in housholde to the right honorable Earle of Shrovvsbury; imprinted at London in Pawles church yarde, by William Williamson, bl. I.

anno 1573.

Hellen in Torments is made to express herself thus in the infernal regions:

"O worthye dames, lende mee your listening eares, [lutes also: Refraine your citherons, and plesaunt With virginalles, delighting many eares, From out your heartes, let thought of

musicke goe.

Perhaps you daine, that I shall will you 80, {scorne: But mervaile not, ne at my wordes take It is your partes though you were ten times moe, [was borne."

To helpe my plainte, with teares that I TO DEREYNE, Derene, DeRENY, DERENYHE, v. a. to contest, to determine a controversy by battle. JAMIESON.

Mr. Jamieson's quotations from Dougl. Virgil, and Barbour, justify his explanation. It was a phrase so much out of the way of Chatterton, who renders it simply "attempt or endeavour" in the following lines of the tragedy of Godwyn, that it certainly merited the attention of Mr. Jamieson. When Harolde, after enumerating the grievances under which the people were labouring from the overbearing influence of the Normannes, expresses astonishment that "alle complayne, yette none wylle ryghted be;" Godwyn, to try his temper and spirit, says, awayte the tyme whanne Godde



wylle sende us ayde." Harolde indignantly replies,

"No, we muste streve to ayde ourselves wyth powre. [fetelie pray de. Whan Godde wylle sende us ayde! tis Moste we those calke awaie the lyve-longe howre? [dareygne;"

Thos croche oure armes, and ne to lyve i. e. shall we thus throw away our time, thus cross or fold our armes, and not contend for our lives and liberties in the field of battle?

To DING, v. a. to drive, to beat, &c.


Siclyk the Trojans with thair kychts [dang." The valiant Greiks furth frae thair ruins BELLEND.

Mr. J. might have added from the Tragedie of Ella an instance of this word unexplained by Chatterton, and erroneously attempted by Dr. Milles. "As whanne a tempeste vexethe soare the coaste, [doe tare." The dyngeynge ounde the sandeie stronde Dr. Milles has rendered this the noisy, sounding" wave, but it is the beating wave; and a reference to the Harl. Miscel. p. 5. Life of William, will show that the word was so used by English writers. "The king brandishing his sword like a thunderbolt dung down his enemies on every side." Danging through is the vulgar Scottish for beating into a wall.

TO DISPARPLE, v. n. to divide, to be scattered. JAMIESON.

"Her wav'ring hair disparpling flew apart In seemly shed: the rest with reckless art With many a curling ring decor'd her face, And gave her glashie browes a greater grace."

Hudson's Judith, p. 55. v. Sparpel." This word occurs in the Tragical Interlude of Ella, l. 413. where it is very properly explained by Chatterton.

Thou there dysperpellest thie levynne-bronde;" ;" "scatterest," Chatterton. Dr. Milles found no authority for the word; but Chapman has it, both in the Iliad and Odyssey.

The chariot tree was drown'd in blood, and th' arches by the seate, Disperpled from the horses hoves, and from the wheelebandes beate." B. 11. p. 152. And odorous neeke." Disperpled lightly, on my head, and Od. b. 10. p. 156. On referring to SPARPEL,Mr.Jamieson gives quotations from Dougl.

water was


Virgil: one of them is-" he his lyfe has sperplit in the are."-Rowley has no instance of the same; but he has one so very near as to merit attention, particularly as it was very much misunderstood by Mr. Tyrwhitt; see the Storie of William Cannynge, l. 99. "In all hys shepen gambols and chyldes plaie,

In everie merriemakeyng, fayre or wake, Ikenn'd a perpled lyghte of wysdom's raie; He eat down learnynge wyth the wastle cake."

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Dr. Milles, very properly, but without producing authority, rendered the perpied" a scatter'd light. Mr. Tyrwhitt called it a purple light; but he saved his credit a little by adding qu. for a query. The Rev. Sir Herbert Croft, bart. left out the qu. and boldly wrote it a " purple light" in his Love and Madness, p. 137. ed. 1st. It has been the fate of the divine old Bard to suffer alike from friends and foes, from his admirers and his ridiculers; but the time must come when his reputation will triumph over the errors and mistakes of us critics and commentators.

The WASTLE CAKE of the last quotation was not merely "the whitest bread," as rendered by Dr. Milles, but that peculiar kind of white bread or cake usually eaten with the wasseling bowl.-In the last quotation of Mr. Jamieson's, from Hudson's Judith, there is" a curling ring decor'd her face" this is not a very common expression. I have several instances of its use, from different writers, which justify the participle decorn "decorated" in the 2d Eclogue of Rowley, L 14.

"The gule-depeyncted oares from the black tyde ryse." Decorn with fonnes rare, do shemmrynge

Chatterton having rendered this "carved," does not appear to have known that decorn is regularly derived from the obsolete verb decore, to decorate, ornament or adorn; as the last, viz. adorn, is formed from the equally obsolete verb adore, to adorn or decorate.

TO DRE, DREY, V. n. to endure, to be able to act, to continue in life.

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1812.] Remarks on Mr. Jamieson's Etymological Dictionary. 523

near as any thing. In the 2d quota-
tion there is still some obscurity; it
has been rendered "while that I die,
i. e. as long as I continue in life."-
"To dree, perdurare," Gl. North.

It is remarkable that this word oc

curs in Rowley in the same obscurity.

"Ye dacyanne menne, gyff dacyanne
menne yee are,
Lette nete botte blodde suffycile for yee
On everich breaste yn gorie letteres scarre,
Whatt sprytes you have, and howe those
sprytes maie dree."

TO FEST, v. a. to fix, to secure.

"Our seymly soverane hymself forsuth will noght cese

Quhill he have frely fangit your frendschip to fest."

Gowan and Gol. ii. 9. There is an expression nearly allied to this in the Bristowe Tragedie, which has always appeared to ine strongly characteristic of antiquity. When the good Cannynge is applying in vain to Edward for the pardon of Sir Charles Bawdin, he says, "Lett mercie rule thyne infante reigne, Twylle faste thye crowne fulle sure; From race to race thy familié

Alle sov'reigns shall endure.”

"This coincidence (to borrow a just observation of Mr. Jamieson's, on a different occasion) is very remarkable in a circumstance so trivial; and exhibits one of those minute lines of affinity, that frequently carry more conviction to the mind than what may be reckoned more direct evidence;" see his expl. of Loun's Piece.

TO FLEM, FLEME, v. a. to drive away, to banish, to expel. JAMIESON. Wallace, Dougl. Virgil, R. Brunne, Chaucer, &c. all afford proofs that this word means to banish or drive away. If Mr. J. had paid that attention to the Tournament of Rowley which it merits, he would have found it there used in that sense, and erroneously rendered "frighted" by Chatterton. In a war songe, alluding to William the Conqueror, it is said

"Throwe the merke shade of twistynde
trees hee rydes ; [wynge;
The flemed owlett flapps herr eve-speckle

"Till at the last great Stanley stout,
Came marching up the mountain steep;
His folks could hardly fast their feet,
But forc'd on hands and feet to creep."
Flodden Field, Fit 9. St. 1. EDIT.


The lordynge toade ynn all hys passe
The berten neders att hym darte the
Stylle, styll, hee passes onn, hys stede.
astrodde, [ynge untoe bloodde."
Nee hedes the daungerous waie gyff lead-

Chatterton has rendered the flemed

the frighted owlett; but the author of the poem, in this instance, meant the chaced, hooted, banished owl or owlet. I am sure Mr. J. would so have understood it. I am not quite so certain that he would have understood the eve-speckte wyng, notwithstanding his Dictionary affords the v. a. to EVEN, to equal, to compare, S. I shall therefore request the atten tion of him and such of your readers, Mr. Urban, as still place confidence in the opinion of Mr. Warton, to a note in p. 20. of my Introduction to "An Examination of the Internal Evi

dence respecting the Antiquity, &c. of Rowley's Poems.”

"Mr. W. has been equally unhappy in his objection to the eve-speckte wynge of the Owlet, Tournament,1.56. "The flemed owlett flaps herr eve-speckte wynge."

"To enumerate his compound epithets," says he (Mr. W.) p. 25 of his Reply to Milles, Bryant, &c. " such as the owlett's eve-speckte wynge and a thousand others, would be tedious and trifling"-why? Chatterton, by the eve-speckte wing, understood the

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wing marked with evening dew." He knew nothing of its meaning, but endeavoured to explain it by guess, and guessed wrong. Dr. Milles has approached very near to the truth; but has not given us the whole truth. He says, "the eve-speckte wynge of the Owl seems to allude to the dark

spots on one species of them, and not to the evening dew." The whole truth is this: the author of these

poems has given a thousand proofs that he was an admirer and an elegant describer of nature. Had even Linnæus been describing the wing of the Owlett, he could not have fixed upon

a more striking, a more characteristic, or happier epithet than the eve speckt, i. e. the even or evenly spotted or speckled wing; for, of the multitude of beautiful specks with which the wings of this bird are adorned, each has its fellow, in the most regular and equal arrangement. We now know, and we are partly indebted to these poems for the information, that


the old English evalle is the same as the modern equal, and "eve, is, in the Teutonic, as much as to say consimilis, even, the same: for our even cometh from the Teutonic word eve, and likewise from their eve so cometh our even so ;" vide Verstegan, p. 191. -To this might be added, that the evening is the exact portion of time betwixt day-light and darkness, or twilight. The caves of a house take their name from the exactness and evenness of the line; and the eve-drop, which forms an even parallel line with the wall of the house, is a name originating in the same idea.

Would it not be trifling with the reader, to adopt for a single moment the notion, that Chatterton was not as ignorant of the true meaning of the eve-speckte wynge as Mr. Warton; or that he did understand it, but artfully inserted a false and nonsensical interpretation, to deprive himself of the credit and reputation due to the writer of such poems.

This interpretation of the evespeckte wing throws light upon a passage in Hamlet, and they mutually support each other, Act V. Scene II. " and the more pity, that great folks should have countenance in this world to drown or hang themselves, more than their even Christian :" i. e. more than their equal Christian; from eve or eval, equal. Shakespeare uses the same word as a verb, which has been noticed by Mr. Malone in the following passages;

"Be comforted, good madam; the great rage, [danger You see, is cured in him; (and yet it is To make him even o'er the time he has

lost) K. Lear, Act IV. Sc. 7. "There's more to be considered; but we'll even

All that good time will give us."

"Madam, the care I have had to even [equal] your content, I wish might be found in the callender of my past endeavours."

All's well that ends well.

Mr. Steevens doubted its being a verb; not considering, that however strange it may appear at present, standing by itself; we still retain it in common language in the compound word evening; i. e. the equalising, or rendering day and night, as to light, eve or equal. We still frequently express it in common conversation by the old word eve, alone; as Christmas eve, or this eve, &c. &c,

It would be robbing my future publication too much, Mr. Urban, were I to enter into a disquisition on the Lordynge-Toade, which affords a very curious investigation, and will be found to convey a meaning of which Dr. Milles and Mr. Bryant had as little true idea as Mr. Warton or Chatterton had of the eve-speckte wynge of the Owlett.




May 28. EING at Dover last Summer, in company with a friend, in the course of exploring the various objects of attraction in that town, not unaptly termed by my companion the English Gibraltar, I strolled into St. Mary's Church, in which I noticed the chancel was inlaid with brasses containing inscriptions in Greek and Hebrew. Time not allowing me to attempt decyphering them, I referred, on my return home, to Hasted's Kent, but could not find any account of them. If any of your Correspondents would point out where my curiosity might be gratified, it would oblige Yours, &c. G. H.

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College, Worcester,
April 7.

THE following brief statement will probably be acceptable to such of your Readers as take a particular interest in the beauties of our Ecclesiastical Architecture.

The Eastern or Chancel part of the Choir of the Cathedral at Worcester, is inclosed on the sides by stone screens, of very elegant designs, crowned with a beautiful embattled line of open work quatrefoils. These screens were removed from some other part of the Church, and set up in their present site, on the restoration of the Choir in 1556, by Dean Hawford, alias Ballard (see Green's Worcester). They were, however, either left imperfect, or subsequently injured in the Civil War, being much broken in the inner side, and having some of the openings closed up. They were terminated at each extremity by a plain wall, and were loaded at the top throughout their whole extent by three courses of ashler. On the inside next the choir they were entirely concealed from view by an ordinary brown wainscot, with common Grecian mouldings, and a few


1812.] The recent Alterations in Worcester Cathedral.

carvings from some older work nailed on some of the pannels.

This wainscot was last year taken away down to the line of the pews or seats, and the stone screens thereby exposed to sight. Two courses of the heavy ashler on the top were removed, leaving only an appropriate base under the cornice of quatrefoils; the plain walls at the extremities gave place to a continuation of the screens to their proper terminations, and the whole work was completely restored, with the addition that the openings (for the sake of warmth) are glazed, but without lead. This alteration has produced a very striking improvement in this part of the Church; the beautiful architecture of which, being now viewed from side to side through the tracery of the screens, appears more light, airy, and extensive, than it did before, and the whole effect is pleasing and impressive. The much-admired stone Pulpit also is seen to greater advantage in consequence of the removal of the wainscot, as it now stands in the centre of a range of stone-work of corresponding elegance; and in point of utility, its extent of view is augmented, as it now commands a sight of great part of the ailes, as well as of the Choir itself; a consideration of some importance, many of the audience being in those ailes on crowded days.


Another alteration, of bolder design, and more striking consequences, is now carrying into execution in this part of the Church. The Altarscreen at present is of wainscot, ill placed, and worse designed, and quite unsuitable to the surrounding display of Pointed architecture; Green calis it "a Greek among the Goths." Besides, it hides from view all the lower compartments of the great East window, which is of magnificent dimensions; as well as the fine ranges of arches in the Presbytery or Lady's Chapel, which intervenes. It is, therefore, condemned to give place to a stone screen, the upper part of which will be open-work glazed with plate glass; and, consequently, admitting a beautiful perspective from the Choir. The materials for this new altar-screen have fortunately been found, standing in situations in the lateral Chapels, where they were neither useful nor ornamental, form

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ing, evidently, no part of the original building, which is uniform and perfect without them. They will, however, with a little new work, and considerable repairs, work up into a screen for the altar of corresponding design with the screens before mentioned, and somewhat similar in effect and position to the altar screen at York. It will stand about seven feet farther back than the present screen; namely, immediately under the great Eastern arch of the upper cross. This will bring the altar itself into its proper position, whereas, at present it is not on the central line of the church on account of the projection of Prince Arthur's Chapel. That very beautiful Chapel will be unconnected with the new screen, and, in consequence, appear to greater advantage; and the additional space gained within the altar rails will be a desirable circumstance, it being now rather narrow and confined. The old stone wall, behind the wainscot, has been already taken down. It was quite plain, without any pilasters, as Mr. Green supposed, and having had no other decoration than a few sentences from the Psalms, &c. It was, however, very thick, and internally constructed out of the ruins of some rich tabernacle work of the 14th or 15th century, destroyed probably at the Reformation. Some beautiful fragments have been picked out of the rubbish, but all greatly mutilated. Against the back of this wall stood four large monuments, viz. those of Bps. Gauden, Blandford, Fleetwood, and Stilling fleet. These have been removed to better situations; the first has been placed opposite to Arthur's Chapel; the two next in the Baptistery; and Bp. Stilling fleet's under the great East window. This Window was rebuilt about twenty years ago, when it was glazed with much stamed glass of rich colours,but arranged without taste. The tremendous hail-storm of last summer did it very great damage; but its reparation has given opportunity for a better arrangement of the light, and the completion of the lower part, which will now come more into view.

In the above and some other alterations of less consequence (such as the putting up new doors at the South entrance) nothing farther is attempted than the making the best


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