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1812.] Commercial Intercourse with Africa.-On the Deluge. 405

our fleets convey our goods to and from the West Indies.

The expence of such a fortified station as is here proposed would be very moderate, in comparison with the advantages it would produce; and it would be easy to draw out a plan for it; but I do not think it would be proper to go into a detail here," non est hic locus."

It has been well observed, that Commerce is the key of Africa; and I shall only add, that if the plan I have suggested were carried into execution, these interesting regions of Africa, that have heretofore baffled the attempts of curiosity and enterprize, and remained for so many ages a "sealed book" to the inhabitants of Europe, would soon be explored and laid open. This is an object that cannot be indifferent to a prince, who has so evidently evinced a desire to patronize science, and who is undoubtedly desirous to encourage, to facilitate, and to encrease, still further, the vast geographical discoveries which have added such lustre to the reign of his august father.

To return to Mr. Jackson's book. This work contains, besides the information that more directly concerus the Statesman and the Merchant, much interesting matter for the natural and moral Philosopher, as well as for the general Reader. The author makes no pretension to fine writing; his style is plain, unaffected, and perspicuous, and there is as much new, authentic, and important matter in the book, as in the hands of the French writers of African Travels, (Golberry, Vaillant, and Savary, for instance), would have been spread over three times the space. Upon the whole, it is the most valuable work of the kind that has appeared for many years. I hope the Author will reap the reward which his labours have so well deserved. Yours, &c.

VASCO DE GAMA.

Mr. URBAN,
May 6.
WOULD fain learn of our General

1 Diluvian fr. H. (p. 332) bow, upon his principle, he accounts for the propagation of the various kinds of noxious animals which are found in America, and in divers islands, some

be transported by the aid of man, those from whose coverings, flesh, and labour, we derive food, raiment, and convenience, we may easily conclude; but that serpents and other noxious animals should be conveyed by man from one continent to another, from one island to another, for the purpose of general propagation, is impossible to be conceived. And what other natural means is there by which they could be conveyed but the agency of man? Besides, there are some kinds of animals which cannot live out of

that particular climate wherein they

are found. How came these then in that part of the world where Noah's Ark was built? And how did they survive the flood in that climate? These are difficulties, Mr. Urban, which I have never yet been able to get over; and I should be very glad if any man could rationally extricate me from them. We are not here treating of the mysteries of Religion, which are above our comprehension; nor any thing which requires supernatural knowledge to explain. This is a subject which is level to every man who has common sense; and therefore we must either find a solution of the difficulty by rational arguments, or at once reject the universality of the Deluge; unless, indeed, we choose to assert that the Almighty wrought a miracle both for the preservation of differeut animals during the time of the flood, and for their propagation afterwards.

I am myself a most sincere believer in the inspiration of the Pentateuch; and therefore feel a more than common anxiety to see such obstacles thrown in the way of others who may be less sound in the faith, by a pertinacity of opinion which might be most safely conceded, if they are desirous of it, to the advocates of infidelity. For the words of Moses do by no means necessarily require a belief that the flood was general. It is said, 'tis true, "All flesh died that moved upon the earth and every man;" but it is not said, " upon the whole earth." It is said in another place, "from the face of the earth,” but not of the whole earth. There is then no necessity for believing that every living creature, which had been

population; and it will not be asserted, I suppose, that they had, in so short a time from the creation, extended to the farthermost bounds of the world. It may be asked, perhaps, "What reason is there for the opinion that other animals had extended further in their propagation than the human race?" I answer, "The Scriptures imply as much." We read, "And God said, let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life;" and again, "the waters brought forth abundantly after their kind *." But in the production of man it is said, "Let us make man in our own likeness." From all this, I think, we may fairly conclude that, though there were but a single pair of the human species created by the finger of God; yet with respect to other animals, they were produced abundantly after their kind, not only in that part of the world where man was placed, but even to the uttermost parts of the earth.

Why then shall we not be free to grant to the infidel that which, in this impartial view of the words of Moses, he can make no use of, instead of throwing obstacles in the way of our faith (which we cannot rationally get over), by those weak attempts to prove the universality of the flood from the discovery of a few bones, and shells, and petrified hogs, under the surface of the earth?

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Established Faith, arc, from similar disappointments, under the necessity of either relinquishing the Church service, or taking shelter in some of the numerous places of sectarial devotion, so plentifully established in every part of the metropolis, and throughout the Island, but particularly where the building additions are made in the vicinity of the metropolis, and in every part of England, extending to the Isle of Wight, which Isle appears (from what 1 lately saw) to be given up to the enemies of the Established Church. No increase of means for their public worship accompanies the increase of population: the sectarians are ever ready to take advantage of this negligence, by the erection of Meeting-houses, and their emissaries employed to observe, when the negligence of the members of the National Church gives them an opportunity, where it can be done with effect. And even where a Church or Chapel is established for the members of the Mother Church, you will ob serve that the pews are private property; and although the building is capable of containing from 200 to 5000 or more persons, yet not a sitting is to be had for a stranger, when perhaps there are not fifty persons in the church or chapel, and, of course, the greatest part of the pews empty: the poor and the lower classes are completely excluded; in some, however, there are benches made for them in the body of the church or chapel; otherwise they must have been compelled to join those religious societies where every encouragement is given, and opportunities afforded, to increase their society's welfare: hoping, as they intend, to effect that purpose, which, whenever it does happen, will give a dreadful shock to the best fabrick that ever was esta blished for the liberties of this country; and if it should ever happen,

"From hence I observe this difference between the production of animals and of man; that in the one God gave a prolific power to the earth and waters for production of the several living creatures which came from them; so that the seminal principles of them were contained in the matter of which they were produced; which was otherwise in man, who was made by a peculiar hand of the great Creator himself, who thence is said to have formed man of the dust of the ground.' Now, therefore, although there were but one male and female of mankind at first, which had a special formation by God himself, yet there is no reason we should conceive it to be so as to the production of other living creatures, whether fish, or fowl, or beasts; but the prolific virtue being given by God's power to that material principle, out of which they were formed, it may very well be supposed that many of the same kind were at first produced." STILLINGFLEET'S Orig. Sacr.

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will be through the fault and negli gence of the superior, as well as inferior Clergy. Being under the necessity of residing (for the benefit of the air, for one of my children) temporarily in the vicinity of the metropolis, I went with my wife and family to the nearest Chapel, on Whitsunday; no admission could be obtained, unless to stand in the aile: we tried another, with the same result; so that, at length, we were obliged to return to our lodgings. And this is an occurrence that is most frequent; for the holders of pews (and a great family, ideally or really so, must have a very large one) are like the dog in the manger; nor will they open a pew door to accommodate any respectable person in the situation above-described, that may be standing near it. There is a society formed for National Schools: but should not the most reverend and right reverend Fathers also establish some plan for the members of the established religion to be accommodated at church? otherwise education will be useless.

A MEMBER OF THE CHURCH
OF ENGLAND.

Mr. URBAN, Louth, May 16. SEND you an account (taken in 1795) of the Monuments of the antient family of Copledyke, in Harrington Church, co. Lincoln. The

Copledy ke family becoming extinct, the estate was sold to Vincent Amcotts, esq. The last of the Amcotts family was Charles Amcotts, esq; M. P. for Boston. His sister married Wharton Emerson, esq. whose daughter married John Ingilby (created a baronet in 1781), son of Sir John Ingilby, bart. The estate now belongs to the Ingilby family. John Copledyke, of Harrington, esq. was High Sheriff of the county of Lincoln, n 1394; Sir John Copledyke, knight, 400; William Copledyke, esq. 1427; John Copledyke, esq. 1488; Sir John Copledy ke, knt. 1548; John Copleyke, esq. 1567. R. UVEDALE.

South Side of the Chancel.

1. A brass plate on the wall is executrix, the daughter of Richard Enchus inscribed in black letters:

"Here lyeth Sir John Copledyke,

derby, of Metheringham in the county of Lincoln. He deceased An. Dom. 1658, 4th of September, aged 79"

A METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL, kept al CLAPTON, in Hack

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April 16. Fair, and a breeze.

OBSERVATIONS.

17. A little snov and hail; clear night

rious clouds. 19 and 20. Fair, but rather cool. 21. Cumulostratus Clear, Cumulus and Cirrus, afterwards Cumulostratus. 23. Cirrus and drops of rain about seven o'clock; fine evening. 24. Clear earl light showers of snow and sleet. 25. Clouds in two altitudes; eve change of wind. 26. Rainy morning, evening Cirrostratus and ru 27. Gentle showers, air become warmer. 28. Rainy morning. wind and cloudy sky. 30. Cloudy and rainy at intervals. May 1. Clouds in two strata, fair day. 2. Cold and cloudy, eveni and Cumuli. 3. Sun out at times, light showers about noon, and golden sunset, a Stratus creeping on the ground. 4 to 18. Wea but generally cold for the time of year. On the 8th and 9th it was the cold weather returned again on the 10th. 18. Thunder storms p. m. the lightning continued through the night.

It appears to me, on enquiry, that storms of thunder and lightning fre and subside in very different parts of the country at the same time. however, what correspondence may exist between the atmospheric chan parts of the country, a more accurate attention must be paid to the p and duration of any particular kind of weather than has hitherto been it appears that these changes often occur simultaneously in very dist atmosphere.

Clapton, May, 22, 1812.

THOMAS

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