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HENRY VIIth's CHAPEL. (Continued from LXXXI. ii. p. 418.) S the Able Writer, in his paper

A of last month, p. 513, has laid him

self open, and exposed his weak side, by running on with his obstinate denials, palpable mistakes, and accidental confessions; 1 in justice to the information due from me to the publick, am bound to take notice thereof; which notice shall be in as concise a mode as possible; observing also that I am preparing a paper on the new Sculptures, in continuation, to be given in proper time and order.

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Able Writer, "Dignity of a Dean," &c.-John Carter. So, so, a Dean at last! I nowhere mentioned such a Dignitary, Well, well, be it A. W. I am engaged as the defender of an Artist most injuriously persecuted, traduced, "&c. J. C. Who traduces me? who debases my abilities to the lowest ebb of contempt? But my cause is that of our Antiquities; so let them cast out their venom. A. W. "I aur tired of this business, Mr. Urban; you would do right to dismiss us both." J. C. Who doubts the Able Writer, considering the great success he meets with by this his defence? A. W. "Original Working Drawings." "I call this charge a falsehood," &c. J. C. The Master Workman did make that boast to me; here I am ready again to accompany him to Marlborough-street. A. W. "Iron cramps were found in parts of the Chapel and the Centre Tower of the Church." J. C. The first shift might be resorted to, in some casual modern repairs of the Chapel; but the latter piece-patch job was a wellknown work of Sir C. Wren, who built the upper part of the said Tower. Now who is "ignorant," or guilty of "misrepresentation"? Having for these thirty years past constantly visited, examined, and drawn from most of our principal antient structures ruinous or otherwise; I once more assert, that I never yet discovered the least appearance of cramp or plugholes. The old Master Workmen were in possession of secrets that enabled them to hold their masonry together, without resorting to such ineffectual means as iron securities; and while I have eyes to see, antient examples in respect to Vanes, and common sense to be assured such objects made the finish of the Turrets of the Chapel,

I shall never give up that charge, as they are pleased to call it. If I cannot read my drawing, I can however read Spelman's History of Sacri lege, as he terms the demolition and alteration of Churches in the sixteenth century, and onder upon all the fatal ends and fearful disasters that he there records. Who cannot but admire the forecast and sagacity shewn in bringing forward the engraving, p. 513, of the lower parapet of King's College Chapel, as such a specimen, with that of the upper parapet from Loggan in my plate p. 417, have both the very obtuse kind of battlement seen in Speed, Hollar, King, Strype, and Dart's views, though, as I before observed, rudely drawn, and which I maintain should have been done at Westminster. Observe the very humble excuse, or, as the Able Writer has elegantly expressed it, "shuffled-off" pretence, "It was copied nearly, and differs from it," &c. The Able Writer says he is not an Architect; the looking over bis defence sufficiently proves his assertion; and surely, if I dare" address myself to an "Earl," or a "Dean," I may dare to encounter a shadow, a twilight two years' creation of Clerkenwell. "Who's afraid?" What! am I to be scared and turned aside from the noble cause I uphold, by threats? How comes it about my Westminster friends cannot find in their hearts to "lash” me, but must give me over to some more revengeful hands, if they can find them? -- I must still use the designation "Master Workman," which I think an honourable distinction for the man, when antient employs are adverted to: and with regard to no one being found to employ me as an Architect," where does the fault lie? Hark, I pray.— cannot, when applied to, to prepare designs, consent to destroy or alter antient edifices. I cannot be silent when told by some people to “let an intended repair of such or such a Chapel escape my strictures; for, as nothing modern, they continue, cau come up to my idea of perfection there always must be an opportunity for my animadversions." And I cannot conclude this paper without inquiring, Is my Father's drawing passed by, the heads of the new cou partments forgot, or the specimen invitations barred up, until suspicion is lulled asleep? (See p. 417.) J, CARTER.

I

Mr.

1812.]

Mr. URBAN,

Slater's Patent Cooking Apparatus.

Jan. 4.

33

only of the best coals-the fire being no than is to boil

Tember having given an account, a kettle or saucepan of the common

under the head of "New Patents," of Mr. Slater's machine, which I fear will not quite satisfy its readers; I have taken the liberty of sending you a plate, with a more minute description of this valuable improvement in the culinary art. (See Plate III.) The plate gives the elevation of two of these apparatuses, the one having, in addition, a hot closet K, in which dishes, prepared for the table, are deposited, while others are in preparation. This closet is heated by the same fire; and before it is required for the above purpose, it might be employed for baking light pastry. A is the steam kitchen, or boiler, with various compartments, differing in their shapes and sizes to suit the form and dimensions of the several articles requiring to be cooked. B is the roaster, or oven, as the case may require for the latter purpose, it must be shat up in the usual way; but for roasting, a current of pure hot air is made to pass through, by means of which the meat or fowl is roasted in every part equally, and in a much superior manner to any other plan hitherto in use. C is the fireplace, and the smoke and flame pass through the intermediate space D, between the roaster B, and the boiler A; and continuing its passage through the flue E, at the back of the machine, finally empties itself into the principal kitchen flue. F is the ashpit, with a valve to regulate the fire. G is the cold air valve: the air entering here is made to pass through some strong tubes, constituting one side of the fire-place-becoming extremely heated, it proceeds, and circulates in the roaster, and then disperses from the final tube II. I is the lip, or reservoir, for introducing the water into the boiler A, with a cock underneath to draw it off.

This is unquestionably the most delicate, cleanly, and cheap method of cooking now practised; as there are no means of annoyance by the accidental falling of soot or ashes. The fire, when once well lighted, will consume, even to powder, the ashes from common grates; and will dress a dinner for 200 persons in one of the largest machines, with a peck GENT. MAG. January, 1812.

size. This small fire heats the air passing rapidly through the tubes into the roaster, so as to froth and brown the meat deliciously; and this constant succession of hot air com pletely purifies the roaster, and entirely prevents that disagreeable smell and flavour experienced in other patent machines. So free indeed is this apparatus from any tendency to smell, that standing in the kitchen it would be impossible to ascertain whether the machine were actually in use. The fire under the boiler A will optionally boil or steam the various vessels it contains; and these vessels are so formed, that, if the family or company are not ready, the dinner may wait for an hours and, though nearly prepared for table, the whole remain for this period of time, yet lose nothing of its essential relish. A double door has also been introduced, at a distance of several inches apart, though opening by the same latch by which the fire is confined, and. the exterior door kept cool. Nor is the cook exposed to any danger from this machine, as in ordinary methods of cooking.

This apparatus is so simple as to be understood at the first glance, and a common cook may immediately become perfectly acquainted with it: nor can it be put out of order without a wilful determination to injure it. In regard to economy, the advantages of this apparatus are manifold. In the steamer the richest gravies are extracted and preserved; while, in the common method of boiling, the juices of the meat are generally dispersed in a quantity of water, and fit only for wash. With a cup full of these gravies you may at any time obtain a bason of excellent soup, boiling it up with water as you would the soup cake, once so much in use. The roaster too is so delicately clean, that the dripping and gravies are fit for any culinary purpose; and while the common methods of roasting consume and dry up the meat and its richest juices, the heat is here tem-* perately and uniformly acting at once on all sides, so as to save, beyond all doubt, at least one pound of meat in ten. The quantity of coal consumed

has

34 Patent Cooking Apparatus.-Dr. Lettsom on Prisons. [Jan ̧

has been shewn, though it will de
pend unquestionably upon the number
in family; but the saving must be
very great; and in the present state
of things, whatever will reduce its
consumption must be admitted to
render service to the community.
Boiling in the ordinary methods ex-
poses the vessels so inmediately to the
action of the fire, as to destroy them
very quickly; but the vessels in this
apparatus, being placed in water, only
require, after cooking, to be rinced
out and wiped dry; by which they
will be preserved ten times as long
as the others--and which points out
too another material advantage, name-
ly, the saving of time and labour.

I was lately required to give a particular estimate of the advantages of this machine to a family whose consumption was about ten pounds of meat per dient, and I delivered the following statement, which I believe will be amply verified.

To the probable saving in meat,
gravy, &c. Is. per diem

To do. three chaldron of coals

at 70s.

To do. in utensils

Total saving per annum

per an. £18 5

To first cost of a machine proper

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for such a family, about

Saving in the first year only

5

5

34 0

24 O

£10 0

between the hours of twelve and four
o'clock, when it may be inspected.

P. S. LEMAITRE,
34, Castle-street, Holborn.

LETTER LXXIII. ON PRISONS.
established a virtue
Charity is so

among them, that the distressed are
accounted the creditors of the af-
fluent, and the mere circumstance of
needing assistance is considered as
conferring a right to it."

N.

Exposé statique de Tonquin, &c. street so called, in London, which the centre of the Poultry, a Lord Mayor, and joins at its other opens to the princely residence of the extremity the wealthy and populous Cheapside, through which many thousands of persons, enjoying case, liberty, and luxury, daily pass, is situated a gloomy prison, called "The Compter," whose murky apartments human infelicity is not often heard; groan with misery; but the voice of or, if heard, is disregarded, in the pursuit of more pleasing gratifications.

Whilst this Metropolis is not less 10 10 distinguished for its active liberality upon every needful decasion, than for its almost inconceivable wealth; and whilst the Corporation itself has declared this Prison unfit for human confinement; it is astonishing that it should still be continued, a notorious disgrace to it, and dishonourable to its general character of beneficence. rous munificent actions of this CorHumanity, contemplating the nume poration, cherishes a hope, that, in the anniversary revolution of the or Sheriff may possess the patriotism great City Officers, some Alderman and courage of effecting substantial great mental exertion is requisite. good, to the accomplishment of which But this is not the offspring of balls and festivities; and hitherto no candidate has appeared, for acquiring an honour, greater than any the City can confer, in the opinion of

In order to secure the proposed
saving in coals, it is recommended
to have the apparatus fixed up in the
place of the range, and a grate suf-
ficient for the necessary purpose of
warming the kitchen to be placed at
the side; but the apparatus may be
placed in a recess if more conveni-
ent-a communication to the kitchen
flue is all that is required. The ap-
paratus may be made to any size or
shape according to the width or depth
of the situation in which it is to be
placed; and where it is required, a
roaster may be placed on both sides
of the fire; in which case the boiler
would be over one roaster, and, if
desired, the hot closet over the other
roaster, all to be heated by the same
fire.

Having obtained from the Paten-
tee the sole agency, I shall be glad
to furnish your scientific readers with
any farther particulars. It is my in-
tention to have it generally in use

JOHN COAKLEY LETTSOM. London, January 1, 1812.

POULTRY COMPTER, London. Gaoler, Edward Kirby. Salary, 2507. paid by the Court of Aldermen, and 301. by the Common Council. Fees, as per table.

Garnish, 6s. 2d. called " Ward the Steward. Chaplain, Rev. Mr. Ducs," paid for coals and candles to

Davis;

1812.] Mr. Neild's Remarks on the Poultry Compter.

Davis; duty, Sunday, prayers and sermon. See Remarks. Salary, 501. and a yearly freedom of the City; voted by the Court of Aldermen, and valued at 251. Surgeon, Mr. Hodgson: salary 1001. and 201, for medicines, at the two Compters and Ludgate, both for debtors and felons. Number of prisoners, February 16, 1807; debtors, thirty-seven; felons, nine. Allowance, to poor debtors, felons, &c. ten ounces of bread, and one pound of potatoes, daily; also six stone of beef, (48lbs.) divided amongst them every Saturday; besides a quantity of broken victuals, collected from the different taverns and eating-houses about the Royal Exchange. For legacies, and other donations, see Remarks.

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accordingly. Since then the Woodstreet Compter has been pulled down, and a new one erected; but the Old Poultry Compter still remains; and, until the alteration hereafter mentioned, was appropriated for the reception of prisoners, in the manner following:

For master's-side debtors, heretofore there were fifteen rooms betwixt the inner and the outer gates; for the use of which each prisoner paid as per table. For common side debtors six wards, within the inner gate; two of them on the groundfloor, called the King's Ward, and the Prince's Ward, in the former of which, November 12, 1803, were seven debtors, and in the latter, the

same number.

On the first floor, or story, were the Women's Ward, with two debtors: the Middle Ward (so called, as as I conceive from its being between the Women's and the Jews' Ward) containing six debtors; and the Jews' Ward, in which were two Jew deb. tors, with a separate stair-case lead

observe, is the only prison I ever vi sited, in which persons of their persuasion were allowed to have the generous, humane, and just indulgence of being kept entirely distinct from the other prisoners: and very sincere, ly do I hope, that, in the projected change and improvement of this building, some similar allotment will be assigned, of a place of retirement, security, and comfort, for debtors, or others, of their peculiar description. Reason suggests the motive for such a hint; and Christian principle sanctions its adoption. It may easily be done, as no great space will be requisite.

REMARKS.-Some years ago, I spoke of this ruinous receptacle for debtors, felons, and other criminal prisoners, as it once stood, in spite of age and debility. Its whole history is most singular; and it must, hereafter, become incredible, whenever its locality is considered to have been in the centre and very heart of the Bri-ing to it. This, let me pointedly tish Metropolis! How long before the Fire of Loudon this Compter had been a prison, cannot easily be ascer tained. There is reason, however, to believe it to be quite as antient as the other Compters. It first appears in the reign of Edward the Sixth, when the keeping of it was an office of no small consideration; for, at that period, one John Seymour, at the special recommendation of the King, had a lease granted to him of this Compter, for a term of years; and in the year 1554, the keeper of the other Compter was Robert Smarte, the City's Sword-bearer, who had the keeping thereof granted to him for life, he obeying the orders of the Court with respect to its management. In the year 1600, certain buildings and alterations of this Compter were finished, at an expence of upwards of 6007. ; and in the year 1614, the Compter was again partially rebuilt, and repaired with oak. After the Fire of London, in the year 1666, two of the city gates, Aldgate and Bishopgate, were converted into prisons, in lieu of the two Compters, (which were both destroyed in that general conflagration) until new Compters could be built. For this purpose an order was passed in the year 1669, and executed

On the second story, or floor above, were also the Queen's Ward, which had ten debtors; and a small room adjoining to it for the sick.

The thirty-four debtors whom I found here at my visits had ten wives and fifteen children living with them in the prison. All are allowed one rug each by the City, but are expect ed to provide their own beds,

To each ward there is a fire-place, In one of the rooms on the second floor, called the Pump Room, the debtors had the convenience of water. The court-yard here is very small, paved with flag-stones, and had water continually

continually running through it. In the passage-court was a day-room for felons, and a small one adjoining to it for debtors: they have irongrated windows, opposite the publichouse, kept within the gates of the prison; and from which they were constantly supplied with liquor.

Men felons slept in two "strong rooms," planked with oak, and studded with large broad-headed nails, on boards raised about three feet from the ground; having each a rug allowed them: and up stairs was another large room for men, and one for women.

The Chapel, which was below, had a gallery for master's-side debtors; and the felons, and other criminals, were seated on forms or benches in the area beneath.

At the top of the whole building are spacious leads, where the mas ter's-side debtors were occasionally allowed to take the air. The keeper, however, or turnkey, was always with them, because the adjacent houses were thought capable of furnishing the ready means for escape.

SUCH was this prison in the year 1803; but the buildings being in a very dilapidated state, and in many parts shoared up with props, it be came at length so dangerous, not only to the lives of the prisoners, but of other persons resorting thither, that in July 1804, an Act passed, with a degree of uncommon expedition, suited to the supposed pressure of the occasion, for the removal of "all the debtors and prisoners here in custody to the Gillspur-street Compter, or to such other safe, secure, and convenient place within the city, as should be approved of by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons thereof in Common Council assembled." It was also ordained to "be Jawful for the Sheriffs, from time to time, and until the Poultry Compter shall have been rebuilt, or made secure, and fit, and commodious for the reception of prisoners, or another Compter shall be provided, to receive, keep, and detain them in such place of intended removal." This took place in consequence, and prisoners continued to be received in the Giltspur-street Compter till the 20th of May 1805; when the very crowded state of that temporary re

ceptacle occasioned a necessity of sending all the night charges to their old place of destination in the Poultry.

Nor was this step sufficiently adequate; for in August 1806, the Giltspur-street Compter not being found large enough to contain the criminal prisoners of both gaols, they likewise were re-consigned to the Poultry. This ruinous and tottering pile therefore (so long before deemed hardly tenable) has now, for above eighteen months, been made the only place of confinement for the criminals of the two Compters; aud the Chapel of the present, being turned into a sleeping room, for want of space, no Divine service is performed there.

The result is, that Gillspur-street Compter is now wholly appropriated to the confinement of the debtors only belonging to both prisons, until a New Poultry Compter shall be provided, or the old one rendered safe," for we can hardly say "fit," and commodious for the reception of prisoners."

66

More than five years have now elapsed: the circumstances above narrated are matter of notoriety; yet how little, if any thing, is done!!!

The two rooms already mentioned as fronting the public-house, the one set apart for debtors, the other for felons, are at present both shut up: and the Queen's Ward, with nearly the whole East end of the prison, have been taken down, to prevent their falling with instant destruction on the helpless inhabitants!

Master's-side felons, or those who can pay for beds, sleep in stroug rooms above stairs, to which the access is from the keeper's house.

Common-side felons have, within the wooden gate, a small court, paved with flag-stones, and a miserable room called the Rat-hole, with an iron-grated unglazed window; and two dismal cells to sleep in, upon boards raised about a yard from the floor, with a rug or two each, according to their number, but no straw. One of these cells is for four prisoners, and the other for two; above which are two other rooms, of a similar description. The Chapel, since its conversion into a dormitory, has barrack bedsteads laid on the floor.

The women felons are shut up in a dreary

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