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1812.] Acoustics.-Salaries of Organists.-Norwich Cathedral. 325

rous pulse in the air, and, therefore, that the pitch of any sound depended solely on the frequency of aerial pulses. In this way alone the sound of a string, of a ball, of an organ pipe, and the bellow of a bull, may have the same pitch."

This being the case, I shall make a proposal, which, perhaps, Sir, will make you smile.

The modern Nomenclature in Chemistry is taken from the nature and properties of substances to which the names are affixed; and is frequently changed as the nature and properties of things are better understood. Instead of calling sounds high and low, grave and acute, it would be more philosophical to call them quickly vibrating and slowly vibrating sounds. "As the ideas of acute and high, and low, have in nature no negrave cessary connexion, it has happened accordingly, as Dr. Gregory has observed in his preface to his edition of Euclid's works, that the more antient of the Greek writers looked upon grave sounds as high, and acute ones as low, and that this connexion was afterwards changed to the contrary by the less antient Greeks, and has since prevailed universally." Yours, &c.

99

C. J. S.

March 31.

Mr. URBAN, WISH to submit to two paragraphs from the Musical Quarterly Review of Mr. Rollmann, as an introduction to the subsequent part of this letter.

"We presume, that, to see the golden age of Cathedral Musick return, it would be necessary first to restore the golden age of its Professors; and to let their salaries keep the original proportion, and to the increasing price of all commodities: in order to enable them to study and compose with the same leisure and inspiration as the antient masters."

Chorus of CATHEDRAL ORGANISTS.
O all ye Deans and Chapters, hear our
lay.

CHAPTER CLERK chants.
The fines, Mr. Dean, are three thousand

this year.

The DEAN making the response.
O joyful strain; it vibrates in my ear.
Full Chorus, supported by all the MINOR
CANONS, ORGANISTS, and SINGING MEN
in the United Kingdom.

Divide, divide, et impera.
"The Sacrist desires they will not
prolong the service, as it consumes
andles; the saving of which is an ob-

ject to the Sub-sacrists, as that, and
money for opening Pew-doors, augments
a salary of 101. per annum !!!

"In regard to the Salaries of Orga-
nists, also, it is strange that, in general,
they are so much less then those abroad;
where, for the mere playing on Sundays,
and for a short attendance on Saturdays,

and all that he can earn besides, by teach-
ing during the whole week, is for his

the Organist has a genteel competency;

particular emolument."

After first premising that a Cathe-
dral Organist is responsible for the
I shall advert
organ being played twice a day
throughout the year;
to chapter 20 of the Statutes of the
Cathedral Church of Norwich.

Of the Stipend of the Petty Canons, Gos-
peller, Episteller, Master of the Cho-
risters, Organist, Clerks, and Cho-
risters.

"We appoint and will, that out of the
revenues of our Church, besides the
Commons formerly assigned in the 18th
chapter, there be paid Stipends to them
that minister in the Choir, by the hands
of the Treasurer, every term of the year
by equal portions, in manner following,
(that is to say): To every Canon for his
allowance, ten pounds and ten shillings;
to the Organist, twenty pounds; to every
Lay Clerk, eight pounds; to the Master
of the Choristers, besides his wages al-
lowed him by the Statutes in right of
his place in the Choir for teaching of the
Choristers, eight pounds. But to the
Choristers we allow at out of
only this we will, that out of the first
increase of the rent of the Church at the
feast of Easter, every Chorister do re-
ceive, by the hands of the Treasurer, two
ells and a half of cloth to the value of
five shillings, for a livery as they call it;
which livery we will have to be agown."

Now here we may observe that the stipend of the Organist was double that of a Minor Canon, probably because each Minor Canon was to have a living from the Church; and so long as the Dean and Chapter make up the incomes of the Minor Canons by livings, I do not complain of their only receiving from the Dean and Chapter the original stipend But what would of 101. per annum. Henry VIII. think of the salary of an Organist in a Cathedral, (in framing the Statutes of which he most unfortuuately wanted foresight,) being in the year 1812 only 301. per annum!!! It would not in this City hire more than a decent house. Is there no redress for this? It rests not with the But the Crown has Bishop as visitor.

1

bas a legal right of altering and amending the Statutes of all Cathedrals of the new foundation. The salaries of the Lay Clerks were augmented a few years ago 121. per man; but the Organist was overlooked. By the Statutes, the Choristers were ordered to be taught to play on instruments of musick; no doubt, that, when they left the Church, they might be qualified to earn a livelihood. This, perhaps, might be justly treated as an "obsolete ordinance;" and the

spirit of the statute would be amply
fulfilled in binding out apprentice
each boy to some respectable trade
upon his quitting the Church; nor
would this be subjecting the incomes
of the Dignitaries to any very severe
diminution; especially when it is
considered that the boys do not
dwell with the master; and, in lieu
of what would be a much greater ex-
pence to the Chapter, viz. the
boarding of the boys, each boy is
allowed from five to ten pounds a
year. Verily they could not be fed
upon potatoes and buttermilk for
this sum; and the "shrill voices"
they are enjoined to have by the sta-
tutes, would become (to use Lord
Bacon's phrase) very exile.

I remain yours "most musically,
most melancholy," C. S. SMYTH.

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Mr. URBAN, March 14. OBSERVE that Mr. Noble, in his Biographical History of England," frequently and judiciously refers to your Magazine, and to the "Anecdotes of Bowyer," of which I am glad to find we are soon to have a new edition, as his Text-books for dates and authorities. His voluines have but very lately reached me; and I may have been anticipated in some slight information I wish to give him, in return for the great degree of entertainment he has given me.

In his account of Thomas Hearne, vol. III. p. 346, he has a note, in which he mentions Mr. Granger's mistake as to the "ridiculous print of him being noticed in the Oxford Sausage." That relates only to the author of the Companion to the Guide, and Guide to the Companion" through Oxford, which work I have now before me, as the fourth Edition, without any date of the year of publication; but which I purchased there in the year 1765, and was afterwards assured by Mr. Daniel Prince, that

"Mr. Warton and he good friends, though, to was himself rather a little the piece." I have likewi edition, as it is called, of additions, and a new mott "Avia Pieridum peragro loca, Trita solo.”

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substituted instead of th
to the Book.
one, which, perhaps, gav

"Tu tibi Dux Comiti, tu
Duci."
Ovid. Ep.

In both of these is the print," with a description similar to that of Mr. G

that the supposition of onl

worked off must be also

As I had the pleasure of v Granger formerly at Shipla a perfect recollection of h nance being a contrast of given of him, so that I can r credit to him for unwilling for his portrait (though, at pole's request, or rather and to "look the world i without a blush," which, properly observes, was author's wish, nor, he hope racter." The placid mildo countenance is changed alm sternness of look, marking the reluctance of constraint Noble ventures to speak of t ter of Hearne's first master,

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as great a curiosity as Ho self," it is fortunate for him "extraordinary" lady is now and, therefore, unable to an which your pages testify have done.

Mr. Noble refers also "Yorke's Royal Tribes of of which I have a copy pr me by the author at the tim lication, in large paper, an on the back of a handsome "Proofs, Painter, Wrexham mentions Sir George Bake lines on Mrs. Van Butchel, prised he did not indulge hi with the translation of the Sir G. sent him with perm insert both; the latter is by lord*, "for the benefit of th I will give you the last line, quite original, instead of a

tion:

"A wife that's dead, yet full o Yours, &c.

*M-rq-s of S-1-b-y.

1812.]

Mr. URBAN,

New Plan for checking Inroads of the Sea.

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March 18. THE Jews, bear their swords into HE Jews, it appears, were accus ploughshares, and spears into pruning hooks, as well as to restore them to their original shape when they were thus again required*. A similar transformation of weapons into tools, tools into weapons, may probably be traced in every other nation. Virgil

says,

"Et eurvæ rigidum faloes conflantur in ensent."

And I am not at all afraid that our

re

ingenious conductors of the forge
will be at any loss, when the desi-
rable days of peace shall arrive, to
render many of our small arms
"duris agrestibus arma +," or, in
other words, as useful in the hands
of husbandmen, as they have been
fatal under the direction of our sol-
diers and sailors. But, Sir, modern
warfare has introduced a variety of
unwieldy instruments, which we may
expect to be puzzled to turn to any
account. For my own part, when I
consider our ponderous cannon, I can
see no alternative, but to let them pass
through the furnace, or rust in our
arsenals. Not so, however, do I
gard their deadly associates, shot and
shells; for my object is to endeavour
to show that they may be well,
though tranquilly employed, if not in
an agricultural, in a nautical way, and
that without depriving ourselves of
the power of having recourse to them
the moment we may be attacked by
any crafty foe. As many valuable in-
ventions have been advanced by your
publication, I will beg a place in it to
enable the publick to judge of mine;
being desirous of giving every one an
opportunity of profiting by it quite
gratuitously, should it be thought
really advantageous. My specula-
tion is this-Suppose a number of
large shot piled in the water, as we
observe them near every battery,-I
am induced to believe, from their gra-
vity and roundness, the upper tier or
two being at most secured, they would
prove an effectual barrier against
the utmost violence of the sea;
but, granting that they would only
resist its ordinary attacks, I think
this would be an advantage suf-
ficient to compensate for the trouble

Isaiah ii. 4; Joel iii. 10.
+ Virgil Geor. i. 507.
Ibid. i. 160.

327

of re-piling them when cast down,
(for they would not be washed away)
at the entrance of some of our small
harbours, or on open
insecure
coasts, for the protection of fisher-
men, or to prevent the hungry waves
returning saturated with valuable
earth, as is continually witnessed
under the Brighton Cliffs, and in nu-
merous other situations. The facility
with which such works might be car-
ried on seems to me a very great re-
commendation. No matter, I should
say, whether the ground be rocky or
even, so that there be not the worst
of quicksands; cast them in, and the
pile will rise. Then the most igno-
rant if lusty fellows may be set at
work; for if there be only a looker-
on, to see that the foundation be laid
in a triangular, square, or other shape
which may be desirable, and the shot
will take, there is but one simple rule
afterwards to follow, from which they
can hardly err. A very few of such
labourers would, in a short time, raise
a pyramid in the Ocean not to be out-
done in correctness by those in Egypt,
or by the cones said to have been
formed by immense exertion at Cher-
bourg.

Should my principle be admitted to the utmost, I am almost tempted, I confess, to suspect that the much-desired security for our shipping in Plymouth Sound may be sooner and more certainly gained by my method than by the use of marble; I will not add at a less expence, being entirely destitute of the means of making any calcula tions on that head. In this latter ob servation I am obviously departing, it may be said, from my original purpose; for we shall want our shot and navy at the same time: but I trust I shall be excused if I can point out any method of employing our numerous untouched subterraneous beds of iron, as well as those large external manufactured heaps of it which will be rendered useless by a peace.

As a hint to the wise is sufficient, I shall now hasten to conclude my remarks by observing that, if cast on purpose, the balls may perhaps be extended with advantage to a much greater diameter; that they may also occasionally admit of being left hollow, to be filled or not, before immersion, with sand, or clay, &c. easily collected every where, and which would very much reduce the expence; that, further, a pier might be made convenient

for

for other purposes besides the security of shipping, by a little alteration in the shape of the outer materials; and, lastly, if the decay of the metal be apprehended from the contact of water and iron, that some cheap coating laid on by the brush would probably retard the progress of it, if no other remedy can be applied. Such, Sir, is the outline of my plan, which, if it should be productive of no good, can hardly be injurious to any but the paper it appears upon; for it would be very unreasonable indeed to undertake any work of the kind before it has been submitted to the examination of men of more science than my rude statement proves me to possess. Besides I conceive that there are thousands of persons on the coast, who have an opportunity of proving its value by actual experiment, at the expence of only a little trouble, having the materials in their hands for other purposes.

A. Z.

leading events, it will further appear, embraces a variety of circumstances so intimately connected and interwoven with each other, that nothing but the wisdom of the Almighty could have foreseen, and which his power and providence alone could accomplish. The visible and undeniable fulfilment of some of these predictions has, no doubt, set in mo~ tion such a portion of evidence, that neither the iguorant nor the learned, the divine or the politician, can any longer withhold their acknowledgement, that the prevailing consideration of an approaching crisis obtrudes itself, as it were, upon public and private observation.

From this state of things, it has been observed, and your own Magazine has afforded proofs of it, “that every aid which can throw any new light upon futurity, is now eagerly caught up. New prophecies, or even the most extravagant of those of antiquity, find numerous purchasers;

Пgonías un iabeveite-Пartα dox- Moore's Almanack, and the ravings

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ALLOW me to observe on the dispo sition for enquiry now prevailing, that proofs may be brought to light, shewing that new advantages may be drawn from the Sacred Writings peculiar to themselves; and that with respect to events now passing, Christianity may probably derive a degree of influence and importance, even in the eyes of unbelievers, which it has never before received.

I allude in particular to what has been handed down from one generation to another, ever since the establishment of Papal usurpation and tyranny, respecting the fall of that tyranny and usurpation; with the restoration of the Jews, the spread of virtue, knowledge, and peace, after a long period of persecution, and the privation of almost every spiritual blessing,

A general agreement too, as to some great outlines in the mode of explaining these predictions, is also clearly discernible, though flowing from different writers, living in ages so remote, and in situations so different from each other, that it is impossible to suspect them of collusion, interest, or the least connexion of design.

The anticipation of some great and

of Johanna Southcott, are consulted on the same principle, and with the same views. In fact, nothing written upon the subject of prophecy, rational or enthusiastic, now remains long upon the shelves, or even upon the stalls of the meanest bookseller."

The good temper and candour of your Correspondent, E. J. L. upon the legitimacy of the efforts of the Society for converting the Jews, I hail as highly becoming in a Christian Controversialist. If he sincerely thinks the means be recommends the best, let them be tried: but are they adequate to their end? If much stress be laid upon a correspondence which "14,000 Jews in England may have with their brethren of every nation;" disappointment, I suspect, will follow, A written correspondence, couched in the enticing words of man's wisdom, must be long and dubious, and is very different from the old apostolic method of making converts, by the demonstration of the spirit and of power!

The Church of England hitherto has contented herself with praying for the conversion of Jews and unbe lievers, leaving the result to Providence; and has the Church hitherto done wrong? I think not; for one reason in particular, which is, that, without the interference of any Christian power whatever, even during one of

the

1812.]

On the present State of the Jews.

the dark ages of Christianity, the Jews adopted and proclaimed the thirteen articles of their faith, which for the first time affirmed their belief in the resurrection of the dead, and in future rewards and punishments. I ask then, was life and immortality brought to light by the Jewish or the Christian dispensation? If by the Jatter, then the Jews' general belief of these fundamentals of the Christian faith, is a proof of their progressive conversion; and may be admmitted as an earnest of better things to come, without any new and extraordinary agency.

Under all the kings of England, in common with other monarchs of Christendom, the Jews, being hardly used, were few and miserable till the time of the Protector, when, being for the first time assured of the free exercise of their religion, they became proportionably numerous and happy. If modern France may be quoted as any example, we shall see that in consequence of the late measures adopted there, they approxi mate still nearer to Christians in the occasional use of meats and drinks, with the adoption even of Christian names! But not one of these changes was introduced under the idea of conHad this been the verting them. case, no doubt, as before in Spain and Portugal, they would have preferred banishment, and even death, to any change in the fundamentals of their religion. Princes who have been advised by priests with respect to their conduct towards the Jews, have hitherto been considerable losers. If Israel then be a prince, by princes only ought he to be dealt with.

But if the foreign Jews, as your Correspondent infers, are to be written to, in order to convert them, the writers, no doubt, will proceed by reason and argument; then of course, as reason and argument will be used in return, we may hear from Abarbanel, and David Levi, that they indulge the hope that Christians themselves, if they are not finally converted, will at least acknowledge the Jewish faith !!! In the latter days, says David Levi, in his Dissertations on the Prophecies, vol. I. p. 70, "All nations will acknowledge the true unity of God, and freely confess that the Lord alone is God, and that their fathers GENT. MAG. April, 1812.

A.

329

had inherited lies and vanity, and things wherein there is no profit." He also most pointedly observes,

that the Messiah, who is to teach the nations (the Gentiles) the word of the Lord, will judge and plead with them concerning their different sentiments on religion; for as a great part of the wars and animosities are owing to religion, he shall judge among the nations, and plead with many peoples; and they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning hooks."

Previously to this we are assured by the same anthor, that the prophet Isaiah speaks of the destruction of nations in general terms." In the figurative language of the prophets, he says, "the Heavens and the things therein, signify thrones and digni ties, and those that enjoy them; the sun is used to denote the whole species and race of kings in the kingdoms of the world politic;" and I may add that the dissolution of the heavens, both in the Old and corresponding parts of the New Testament, denotes the dissolution of the kingdoms under the dominion and apostacy of Rome Papal; its successor the Germanic, or continuation of the Holy Roman empire; and particularly the ten kingdoms, which are said for a time, ia Rev. xvii. 12, 13, 14, to have given their strength and power to the beast. This idea of the destruction of the world and the powers of, or under, the great apostacy, is consistent with the reasoning of the Apostle in Thessalonians i. 4. and ii. 3; and also with that of Peter 11 Ep. chap. iii. v. 7 and 10. these sublime passages having no primary reference whatever to the destruction of the material world, as hitherto generally understood. Under this impression, the Apostle's exclamation, "Seeing then that all these things (these hea vens, these mighty empires and kingdoms, the rulers and the ruled) shall be dissolved for us (Christians), what manner of persons ought ye to be,” is proper and consistent; but, if all things were to be dissolved, and all human existence come to a final period, as some have understood, there would be no place for the new hedveas and the new earth, viz. new kingdoms and new people, among whom should dwell righteousness, under the restitution of all things, and

the

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