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A Series of Letters on Acoustics, Letter I.

ed to me in the following
learned friend.
Sir,-You were talking
ttle while since of the
σαλπιγξ. I believe it is
ken of by Homer in his
sey. "OTE XE σay"
219, of Lib. xviii. of
μεγάλας σαλπιίγας"oc
atrachomyomachia, line
ελπιγξ is deemed to have
ently used in war, in the

er. There are said to x kinds of caYES; hich was reported to have red by Minerva, and was inhabitants of Attica. cies, which is attributed e Egyptian; it was called was in form orрoyyuan; n religious ceremonies, g together the people. this resemble the ram's pture? The third kind Tixn, er Sallica; this was sore fabricata), not very ving its xwwva (corpus as some translate, but er its bell, or swelling in the form of a wild 1 an αυλον (superiorem n) of lead (μoudivov), e trumpeter blew; the was οξυς : this kind of called by the Cetts fourth kind of trumpet hlagonian: its bell or the form of an ox; it 5, it was called Boos. d was the Median, the kind was of reed (xañasxwdwy is not exactly ut the instrument was d the sixth kind was the - to the Phrygian αυλος, ένα κεκλασμένον ; it was

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Lofft, esq. who had inquired in the same publication when piano-fortes were first invented, that he has a square piano-forte made by Zum in 1768; it is upon the common construction. It has the mark XVIII upon it, which appears to have been the number he had then made.

"The first person in England, who attempted a large piano-forte, was Plinius, a German."

In the Belle Assemblée,August 1807, the invention of the piano-forte is

attributed to the late celebrated C. G. Shroeter, organist, at Nordhausen, Germany. He presented a model of his invented mechanism, in 1717, to the Elector of Saxony, who was then also King of Poland.

The following account, with which I was favoured in a private letter from Mr. James Broadwood, is, I apprehend, more authentic. "If by the celebrated Shroeter, mentioned in the Beile Assemblée as having invented the piano-forte in 1717, the late composer for the piano-forte and first elegant performer on that instrument is meant, the article must be incorrect, as he only died about twenty years ago, aged about 58.

"The first maker of the Grand

Piano Forte was II. Baccers, a Dutchman, who, in 1772, invented nearly the mechanism, by which it is distinguished from the instrument with that name made in Germany.”

"From the improvement by the English makers, particularly by my father John Broadwood, who was the first nativeof this Island that attempted the business (before, exclusively, carried on by Germans and Flemings),

may be claimed as a British instru-
ment, from its capacity of tone, ex-
tent of compass, superior in effect to
every instrument of the reed kind
made on the Continent."

To the superlative excellence of Mr. Broadwood's Piano Fortes, you, I know, will most readily subscribe; and being, perhaps, impatient to proceed to another subject, will have no objection to my subscribing myself, Yours most truly, C. J. S.

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which have happened betwixt his Majestie and the Parliament, from the beginning of these unhappy dissentions to the 25th of March, 1647: together with a Catalogue of the Lords, Knights, Commanders, and persons of quality slain on either side therein;" in which there is an Elegy so quaint, that I cannot help transcribing it, with the occasion which drew forth the strains of a Poet, who, though in some points miserable, has certainly got one virtue, which Isocrates, by his example, so strongly recommends-brevity.

"Captain William Laborne, slain at Sherrif-hutton (situated about 9 miles from York, where there is a castle now in ruins), being asked by the enemy for whom he was? answered, 'For God, his holy Church, and the King,' and so was instantly shot dead.

"For God, his holy Church, and King,
He dy'd, whose dirge my Muse doth sing.
For God, in duty; Church, in zeale :
For th' King, in love to th' Common-

For God he dy'd, with God he lives;
For th' Church he dy'd, which triumph
For th' King he dy'd, with th' King of
His blessed soul Alleluja sings.
Thus God, Church, King, have each a
In Laborne's death, a mirror rare,
Wherein brave minds may have a sight,
How for God, Church, and King to fight.”

Should you honour the above by inserting it in your Magazine, you will at once, Mr. Urban, rescue from oblivion the name and memory of a noble Briton, and at the same time oblige R. S.

P.S. I should be very much obliged to any of your Correspondents, if they would favour me with the date of foundation, or name of the founder, of Middleham Castle, Yorkshire.

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Tthe Kings and Queens of Eng-
HE following Titles of some of

land, as they occur in Deeds and other
public instruments, may perhaps be
curious to your Readers.

Eaduueardus, divinâ largiente, Angul Saxonum Rex. Anno 908.

Eadgar, Dei omnipotentis nutu, Rex totius Albionis Insulæ. 961.

Edgar, totius Britanniæ gubernator et rector. 962.

Edgar, Rex Anglorum ceterarumque gentium. 966.

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Edwardus, Rex Anglorum aliarur
gentium in circuitu persistentium.
W. Rex Anglorum. 1083.

Rex Anglorum et Normannorum
Henricus, providente divinâ cleme
Willielmi magni Regis filius, qui
in Regnum. 1109.
wardo Regi HEREDITARIO JURE succ

Henricus Rex Angliæ. (no date.)
S. Rex Angliæ. 1138.

H. Rex Angliæ et Dux Normannia
Aquitaniæ et Comes Andegaviæ. 11
Ricardus, Dei gratiâ, Rex Ang
Dux Normanniæ, Aquitaniæ, Co
And. 1189.

Johannes, Dei gratiâ, Rex Ang
Dominus Hiberniæ, Dux Normannia
Aquitaniæ, Com. And. 1203.

Henricus, Dei gratiâ, Rex Ang
D'nus Hiberniæ, Dux Norm. Aquita
et Comes Andeg. 1230.

H. Dei gratiâ, Rex Angliæ, D'nus
berniæ, et Dux Aquit. 1265.

Elianora, Dei gratiâ, Regina Angl
D'na Hiberniæ, et Duc. Aquit. 1262
Edwardus, Dei gratiâ, Rex Angl
D'nus Hiberniæ, et Dux Aquit. 127

Edwardus, Dei gratiâ, Rex Angl
D'nus Hiberniæ, et Dux Aquitaniæ,
Superior Dominus Regni Scotia. 129

Edwardus, Dei gratiâ, Rex Angli
Dominus Hiberniæ, et Dux Aquitani

D'nus Hiberniæ, et Dux Aquit. 1327
Edwardus, Dei gratiâ, Rex Angli

d'Engleterre & de Fraunce, & Seig
Edward, pour la grace de Dieu, R
d'Irlaund. 16 Apr. 1341.

Edwardus, Dei gratiâ, Rex Angli
Dominus Hiberniæ et Aquitaniæ. 136
d'Engleterre, Dame d'Irlande, et D
Phelippa, par la grace de Dieu, Roi
chesse d'Aquit. 1340.

Franciæ, et Dominus Hiberniæ. 1397
Ricardus, Dei gratiâ, Rex Angliæ
Henricus, Dei gratiâ, Rex Angliæ
Franciæ, Dominus Hiberniæ. 1443.

Edwardus, Dei gratiâ, Rex Angliæ
Franciæ, et Dominus Hiberniæ. 1460.
Henricus, Dei gratiâ, Rex Angliæ e

Francice, D'nus Hiberniæ. 1485.

Franciæ, D'nus Hiberniæ.
Henricus, Dei gratiâ, Rex Angliæ e

King of England, and of France, De
Henry the Eight, by the grace of God
fensor of the Faith, and Lord of Irland

Henricus Octavus, Dei gratiâ, Anglia
et Franciæ Rex, Fidei Defensor, D'nus
Hiberniæ, et in Terra supremum Caput
Anglicanæ Ecclesiæ. 1537.

Yours, &c.

M. B.



The Royal Palace at Eltham in Kent.

Mr. URBAN, Portman-sq. Dec. 31.

AMONG the many venerable remains of the once magnificent dwellings of Princes, there cannot be one more deserving of notice than that of Eltham in Kent. Its favourable situation (not more than seven miles from the Metropolis), and wholesome air, drew many a Royal visitor under its splendid roof. This extensive place was surrounded by a large and deep moat, with two bridges; one on the North, and the other on the South side of the Palace. That on the North is very perfect; the other has been entirely demolished. The bridge that is left is composed of four very large Pointed arches, and is groined with stout plain ribs, the ends of which die into the piers; usually they rest on brackets. An angnlar buttress with a base divides these arches. The bridge terminates with a straight parapet, which does not appear to be its original finish, as the wall above the points of the arches is brickwork. At the South end of this bridge was originally a gateway, but not a vestige of it is left. The two antient brick houses that are left, one on each side of the bridge, shew every appearance of there having been one, by several stone brackets that are left in the wall. On entering this gate, the noble Hall (all that now remains) and the Palace attached to it, present themselves to view. From the South side of the Palace is to be seen the Dome of St. Paul's Cathedral in London; but, in its feudal grandeur, a much nobler object was in view, the Heaven-directed spire of old St. Paul's.

The habitable parts of this mansion appear to have been at the East and West ends of the hall, by the fragments of the walls that join in different places, and the plastering which it left on the West end. A few paces from the South-West angle of the hall, is an arched conductor, for water and other purposes: it is nearly filled with rubbish, but is still large enough to admit a person on his hands and knees; in its original state it would admit a person standing upright; it is of considerable length. Such conductors are very often mistaken for subterraneous passages communicating from one town to another. At Woodstock such a passage is said to have communicated with Oxford,



The hall is now the only remain, and a sufficient proof of its original grandeur. Its principal entrance was under a Pointed arch on the South side, between the two last buttresses at the East end; this door led under the Musick-gallery, and from thence into the Hall. The South side con-sists of five bays, in each of which are two windows, joined together by the sweeping cornice which covers them. The heads of these are flat-pointed arches; the width is divided by a mulion, and has no transom (or cross bar); the mullion turns off at the top, as high as the springing of the arch which encloses them, and joins the large one above half way, whereby two small Pointed arches are formed, in which are five turus. The space between these points and that of the large arch is occupied by four other turns of the same description. the pier, between every two windows, are handsome buttresses; at the splay of the window the buttresses project farther, and continue down within three feet of the ground, and finish with a base, which runs along the whole of the South side. The dado, or blank space of wall under the windows, is entirely plain, which is nearly two-thirds the height to the parapet line. On the South side, in a line with the West end, projects the oriel. This beautiful addition occupies the space of one of the bays. The front of the oriel is filled by two lofty windows; the whole of which up to the heads of these arches has been cut away, to admit a waggon or cart to load or unload! The interior of the sides of it are suffered to remain very perfect; the West side has in it a window of the same description as those in the front, but no lower than the transoin, which divides the height of all the openings. Under it are two small compartments, the pointed heads of which are ornamented with double turns; that is, small sweeps within larger, like the openings of the windows; and under these compartments is a flat-pointed head doorway, without any ornaments, resting on very slender columns with lofty bases. It does not appear to have been ever used as an entrance, as the dwelling-rooms joined the wall. The East side of the oriel has a single window divided by a transom, which is ornamented at the top with small battlements. The width of this end


was hardly sufficient to admit of a pier and window as wide as one of those in the front: to ease this, the internal lines of the window came flush with the wall of the Hall, and the sweeping cornice over the arch of it dies into the wall. At a distance it bas the appearance of little more than half a window. Over the points of the windows is a cornice at the angles are two grotesque heads, and one in the middle. The same cornice continues the whole of the South side, but has no heads. Over this, about eighteen years since, was a battlement (the finish of the wall); but probably it was destroyed when the roof was repaired. C. B.

Mr. URBAN, Partman-sq. Jan. 4.

IN your number for December, page

503, M. Y. wishes to be informed of such of our antient Cathedral structures as have the lanterns of their Towers open to the body of the Church. In addition to York, there is Beverley Minster, in the same county, Ely, Peterborough, Westminster Abbey, and, if I mistake not, Carlisle Cathedral.

I am sorry to hear that the op. probrious term "Gothic," first promulgated by Sir Christopher Wren, is not entirely eradicated (applied to the antient sublime Pointed architecture of this kingdom) by those who are and must be sensible to its fascinating beauty.

That Architect chose to call all our Cathedrals" mountains of stone:" Salisbury certainly must be included in the number, which for lightness and elegance is not surpassed by any Church in the known world. The epithet would have been better applied to his own works. Again, he says, "they spared neither trouble nor expence in ornamenting their fabricks" this, in fact, is truth; but they were not crammed in every corner." If their buildings were richly ornamented, as they often are, they were properly and justly displayed; and always produced that sublime effect for which this style is so much admired. Scarcely a wall of Sir Christopher Wren's work escaped without being "scored like loins of

nience of a Belfry. Cricklade Church, in Wiltshire, is suffered to remain open, and is remarkably enriched. St. Mary Overy's Church, in Southwark, a Cathedral in miniature, was open (the lower story of the tower), elegant arches occupying the four sides, supported by slender insulated columns, whereas the upper story (or room) is entirely plain; but this was altered at the Reformation, the Church filled with pew lumber, and a mountainous altar-screen, under the East window. The exquisite timber roof, under the tower of Merton College Chapel, Oxford, is entirely hid from public view, the groins of which are very curiously contrived. Yours, &c.

C. B.

Mr. URBAN, Mainsforth, Jan. 8.
N bis very amusing and instructive

Bibliomania, Mr. Dibdin mentions, as being in Mr. Heber's possession, a Volume of Eustace's Froissart, which, it is presumed, from the arms, inseribed HENRICUS DUX RICEMUNDIE, has formerly belonged to Ilenry VII.-May not this rare Volume have been rather the property of Henry Duke of Richmond, natural son to Henry VIII.? A reference to the arms will at once determine the point; as those of the Duke (viz. France and England, a Bordure quartered Ermie and compony Arg. and Az. a Batune sinister of the 2d; an inescutcheon quarterly, Gules and Varry, Or and Vert, a Lion ramp. Arg.; on a chief Az. a Castle between two Bucks' heads cahossed Argent) are very different from those of his Royal Grandfather either as Eurl or King.

In 1654, or thereabouts, a Survey of all Livings, &c. was taken by order of Parliament. At the Restoration these Surveys were, I believe, ordered to be transmitted to the respective Dioceses to which they referred. It is a question of some importance to me, whether any such Surveys were sent to Durham; and if not, where they may at present be expected to appear-possibly at Lambeth I shall feel much obliged by any information on the above subject. R. SURTLES.


Jan. 2. AROCHIAL History, and ber at

pork," and festooned like a playhouse, tendant Biography, are so much Most of our Cathedrals, and many Parish Churches in the kingdom,were originally intended to be open to the roof, but stopped up for the conve

indebted to the labours of Mr. Daniel Lysons, that his disposition must be querulous in the extreme, who could


1812.] Vincent Corbet, the Father of Bishop Corbet,

feel disposed to take hypercritical advantage of a casual oversight or accidental omission; it is, therefore, with feelings of regret, rather than of anger, that I find, in the last edition of the "Environs of London," but slight notice of the father of Bishop Corbet, and the mention of him, slight as it is, involved in some confusion. "Twickenham," says Mr. Lysons in a note, " has long been celebrated for its gardens. Bishop Cor bet's father is said to have had a famous nursery there in Queen Elizabeth's time. Richard Pointer, in the same reign, was (according to a MS. of Oldys, in the possession of Craven Ord, esq.) a most curious planter and improver of all manner of rare trees." This twofold praise may center in one man, for Corbet and Pointer were aller et idem; and we might conclude that Oldys acquired his information from Whalley's Ben Jonson, but that he would there have found, that Vincent, not Richard, was the Christian name of Corbet's father. This circumstance is thus explained by the facetious Bishop in “an Elegie upon the death of his owne Father:" (1619.)* "VINCENT CORBET, farther knowne By POYNTER'S náme than by his owne, Here lyes ingaged, till the day Of raising bones, and quickning clay; Nor wonder, reader, that he bath Two surnames in his Epitaph, For this one did comprehend All that two familyes could lend."

His celebrity in his occupation was certainly great, and such as attracted the notice of the most intelligent cul tivators of the science of horticulture; accordingly we learn that when Sir Hugh Platt was collecting materials for his “Flora's Paradise," which afterwards bore the title of "The Garden of Eden;" he held, according to Hartet, a correspondence with all lovers of agriculture and gardening throughout England,

and among the number of those from whom Sir Hugh sought and obtained information was Mr. Vincent Poynter, of the parish of Twickenham. In commendation of Sir Hugh Platt, Harte makes one observation which demands attention: namely, "such was the justice and modesty of his temper, that he always named the author of

* Corbet's Poems, page 120, ed. 1807.
+Essays on Husbandry, vol. II. p. 113.


every discovery communicated to him," a very laudable practice, and worthy of example; but of the justice of which had Walter Barte been duly impressed, he would doubtless have attributed this observation to Charles Bellingham, Sir Hugh's editor, from whom he received it. Whether Vin cent Corbet's, or Poynter's, share in the "Garden of Eden" will entitle him to notice in the Parochial History of Twickenham as an author, 1 an willing, Mr. Urban, to leave to your decision; but, if his claim on this head be disputed, and even rejøcted, as a benefactor to my native-village, his pretensions to a memorial are peremptory and unquestionable. The register of the parish records the interment of Mr. Vincent Corbet, or Poynter, on the 29th of April, 1619," and his will (Reg. Prerogative Court Cant. Parker 49), conveyed to the poor of the parish of Twickenham forty shillings, to be paid immediately after his decease; and four loads of charcoal, to be distributed at the discretion of the churchwardens. Twickenham appears to have had another poet, in addition to Pope, Suckling, and Corbet; for Ironside,

"a sad historian of the pensive plain," (and who is guilty of the heinous crime of making the writer of this letter a year older than Nature decreed),-Ironside found the following copy of verses on the first leaf of the old parish registers, which he supposed to have been written by Mr.Carr: "How few exceed this boundary of fame, Known to the world by some things more [they die; This tells us when they're born and when What more? Why this is all their bis[tween;

than name!


Enough; if virtue fill'd the space be
Prov'd, by the ends of being, to have


For nearly two centuries, this parish-register has been the "boundary of Vincent Corbet's fame," although his skill in a science very imperfectly known to his contemporaries was very distinguished, and his virtues were such as to call forth their celebration by Bishop Corbet, Ben Jonson, and a friend, referred to by the latter, whose name and eulogium I have not been fortunate enough to discover. If the Bishop's poetry had not been lately given to the publick, I


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