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EXPLANATORY AND PRACTICAL,

ON THE

EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS.

DESIGNED FOR

BIBLE CLASSES AND SUNDAY SCHOOLS.

BY ALBERT BARNES.

NINTH EDITION, REVISED AND CORRECTED.

NEW YORK:

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,

329 & 331 PEARL STREET,

FRANKLIN SQUARE.

1856.

Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year one thousand

eight hundred and thirty-four, by

ALBERT BARNES,

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, in and for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

THE Epistle to the Romans has been usually regarded as the most difficult portion of the New Testament. It is from this cause, probably, as well as from the supposition that its somewhat abstruse discussions could not be made interesting to the young, that so few efforts have been made to introduce it into Sunday Schools and Bible Classes. It will doubtless continue to be a fact, that Sunday School instruction will be confined chiefly to the historical parts of the Bible. In the Sacred Scriptures there is this happy adaptedness to the circumstances of the world, that so large a portion of the volume can thus be made interesting to the minds of children and youth; that so much of it is occupied with historical narrative; with parables; with interesting biographies of the holy men of other times, and with the life of our blessed Lord. But still, while this is true, there is a considerable portion of the youth, in various ways under the instruction of the Bible, who may be interested in the more abstruse statements and discussions of the doctrinal parts of the Holy Scriptures. For suchfor Sunday School teachers; for Bible Classes; and for the higher classes in Sabbath Schools, these Notes have been prepared. The humble hope has been cherished that this epistle might be introduced to this portion of the youth of the churches; and thus tend to imbue their minds with correct views of the great doctrines of the Christian Revelation.

This object has been kept steadily in view. The design has not been to make a learned commentary; nor to enter into theological discussions; nor to introduce, at length, practical reflections; nor to enter minutely into critical investigations. All these can be found in books professedly on these subjects. The design has been to state, with as much brevity and simplicity as possible, the real meaning of the sacred writer; rather the results of critical inquiry, as far as the author has had ability and time to pursue it, than the process by which those results were reached. The design has been to state what appeared to the author to be the real meaning of the Epistle, without any regard to any existing theological system; and without any deference to the opinions of others, further than the respectful deference and candid examination, which are due to the opinions of the learned, the wise, and the good, who have made this epistle their particular study. At the same time that this object has been kept in view, and the reference to the Sabbth School teacher, and the Bible Class, has given cha racter to the work, still it is hoped that the expositions are of such a nature as not to be uninteresting to Christians of every age and of every class. He ac complishes a service of no little moment in the cause of the church of God, and of truth, who contributes in any degree to explain the profound argument, the thorough doctrinal discussion, the elevated views, and the vigorous, manly, and masterly reasonings of the Epistle to the Romans.

Of the defects of this work, even for the purpose contemplated, no one will probably be more deeply sensible than the author. Of the time and labor necessary to prepare even such brief Notes as these, few persons, probably, are aware. This work has been prepared amidst the cares and toils of a most reponsible pastoral charge. My brethren in the ministry, so far as they may have >ccasion to consult these Notes, will know how to appreciate the cares and anx ieties amidst which they have been prepared. They will be indulgent to the faults of the book; they will not censure harshly what is well-meant for the ri sing generation; they will be the patrons of every purpose, however humble, to do good.

It remains only to add, that free use has been made of all the helps within the reach of the author. The language of other writers has not been adopted without particular acknowledgment, but their ideas have been freely used where they were thought to express the sense of the text. In particular, aid has been sought and obtained from the following works: the CRITICI SACRI, CALVIN'S COMMENTARY ON THE ROMANs, Doddridge, MACKNIGHT, and ROSENMULLER ; and the commentaries of THOLUCK and FLATT-SO far as an imperfect know. ledge of the German language could render their aid available. A considerable portion was written before Professor STUART's Commentary appeared. In the remaining portion, important aid has been freely derived from that work. The aim of this work is substantially the same as that of the "Notes on the Gospels," and on the Acts of the Apostles; and the earnest wish and prayer of the author is, that it may be one among many means of establishing the truth, and of promoting its advancement and ultimate triumph in the world.

Philadelphia, June 14, 1834.

ADVERTISEMENT TO THE FIFTH

EDITION.

Notwithstanding the difficulty of correcting a work which is stereotyped, the following Notes have undergone a careful revision, and several alterations have been made. The changes refer to a few phrases which did not accurately express my meaning, and to some entire paragraphs. My desire has been to make the work as little exceptionable as possible. Some expressions in the former editions have been misunderstood; some are now seen to have been ambiguous; a few that have given offence have been changed, because, without abandoning any principle of doctrine or interpretation, I could convey my ideas in language more acceptable, and less fitted to produce offence. The changes (occurring in pp. 94.95.96. 108. 115. 117. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 128. entirely re-written, 146. and 192,) have been made with a wish to make the work more useful, and with a desire to do all that can be done, without abandoning principle, to promote peace and to silence the voice of alarm. On some of these passages, as is extensively known to the public, charges of inculcating dangerous doctrines have been alleged against me before the Presbytery of which I am a member. After a fair and full trial the Presbytery acquitted me; and I have taken the opportunity after the trial was passed and I had been acquitted, to make these changes for the sake of peace, and not to appear to have been urged to make them by the dread of a trial.

When the work was first published, it was not anticipated that more than two or three editions would be demanded. The fact that, within less than eight months, a fourth edition should be called for, is a source of gratitude, and an inaucement to do all that can be done to make the work as complete as possible, that it may more perfectly accomplish the design for which it was written. Some of the alterations have been made by the suggestions of friends; some by the cry of alarm which has been raised, but, whether from the one or the other, I hold that an author should be grateful for all the suggestions which may go to improve his works, and should amend them accordingly. ALBERT BARNES.

Philadelphia, July 15 1835.

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