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We may gather out of history a policy no less wise than eternal.
-Sir Walter Raleigh.

Histories make men wise.-Bacon.

seemed to walk the earth again.


Truth comes to us from the past as gold is washed down to us from the mountains of Sierra Nevada, in minute but precious particles.-Bovee.

Examine history, for it is "philosophy teaching by example."-Carlyle.

History is the essence of innumerable biographies.-Carlyle.

Biography is the most universally pleasant, the most universally profitable, of all reading.-Carlyle.

Both justice and decency require that we should bestow on our forefathers an honorable remembrance.- Thucydides.

"If history is important, biography is equally so, for biography is but history individualized. In the former we have the episodes and events illustrated by communities, peoples, states, nations. In the latter we have the lives and characters of individual men shaping events, and becoming instructors of future generations."



Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri.


the most noted in the history of Missouri
crime. In Jackson County Mr. Garner has
appeared in many important legal battles,
including the celebrated election contest
case in Jackson County. As a criminal law-
yer he stands at the head of the bar, having
successfully defended, among other clients,
Blanche Connors for murder in the first de-
gree, B. F. Cates, also charged with mur-
der in the first degree, and Jennie Hendrick,
accused of murder. The cases attracted
widespread attention at the time of their
trial in the courts of Jackson County, and
added materially to the reputation of the
lawyer who so successfully defended the pris-
oners at bar. He has appeared in many other
murder cases of less importance, and has es-
tablished a steadfast reputation as a trial
lawyer, as well as in the careful preparation
of cases. Mr. Garner has always been a
Democrat politically, but in the election of
1896 he found himself unable to accept the
principles enunciated by the leaders of his
party. He, therefore, supported Palmer and
Buckner, on the national ticket, and can-
vassed the State of Missouri in the interest
of those candidates for the highest offices
within the gift of the people. For a num-
ber of years Mr. Garner was a member of
the Democratic central committee of Jack-
son County. He is a communicant of Trin-
ity Episcopal Church, Kansas City, and was
for a number of years a member of the vestry
of that church. He is a member of the
Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the
Knights of Pythias. Mr. Garner was mar-
ried, in April, 1873, to Miss Leonora Snoddy,
daughter of Samuel Snoddy, of Howard
County, Missouri, and after her death was
married to Miss Carrie Cotes, of Galesburg,
Illinois. Of the last union three children
have been born. The head of the family is
recognized as an able lawyer, and he is highly
respected as a patriotic, public-spirited cit-
izen, a true friend to the worthy cause and

Garner, James W., lawyer, was born. in Ray County, Missouri, September 2, 1852. His father, C. T. Garner, was born in Howard County, Missouri, removed to Richmond, Ray County, and there studied law in the office of George W. Dunn. For fifty years he practiced his profession in Ray County, becoming one of the strongest legal advocates and counselors in the State, as well as a foremost citizen and man of prominence in all important affairs. The mother of J. W. Garner was a daughter of James Mosby, of Callaway County, Missouri, and was born at Fulton. Mr. Garner is a descendant of the Triggs and Clarks, noted families of Kentucky and Virginia. The subject of this sketch received his education in the public schools of Ray County, Missouri, and later graduated from Richmond College, located at Richmond, Ray County, Missouri. He followed his literary training with a course of careful legal reading of which he availed himself in the office of Garner & Doniphan. This firm was one of noted strength, the senior member being the father of the young man, and the other member being General A. W. Doniphan, one of Missouri's most celebrated men. After his admission to the bar of Missouri Mr. Garner practiced law in partnership with his father. Having read for four years before applying to the Circuit Court of Ray County for admission, he was thoroughly prepared for his professional career. He was elected prosecuting attorney of Ray County and served four years. Since that public service he has never been a candidate for political office. In the spring of 1887 Mr. Garner removed from Richmond to Kansas City, Missouri, and has since been a resident and active practitioner of that place. During his term of office as prosecuting attorney of Ray County, Mr. Garner tried the celebrated case of the State of Missouri against the Ford boys, for the murder of Wood Hite, the trial lasting about two weeks and being one of

Vol. III-1

a warm supporter of every movement that will advance the interests of his locality and the State of which he has been a part since his birth.

Garrison, Daniel R., manufacturer and railroad manager, was born November 23, 1815, in Orange County, New York. He learned the machinist's trade as a boy, and worked at it in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, prior to his coming to St. Louis. He located in that city in 1835 and took employment in the foundry and engine works of Kingsland, Lightner & Co. Five years later he formed a partnership with his brother, Oliver Garrison, and began the manufacture of steam engines and steam machinery of all kinds. This enterprise proved successful, and in 1840 the brothers sold out their foundry and machine works and retired from this branch of industry with handsome fortunes. When the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad enterprise was set on foot, Daniel R. Garrison became identified with it and was one of the moving spirits in advancing the road to completion. Afterward he took the vice presidency and general mangement of the Missouri Pacific Railroad, and occupied that position during the Civil War, and until 1870. When the Missouri Pacific and the Atlantic & Pacific roads were consolidated he was made vice president and general manager of the consolidated interests, and served in that capacity until the property passed into the hands of Jay Gould. Later he built the Vulcan Iron Works of South St. Louis, and in company with others the Jupiter Iron Works, which were afterward consolidated as the Vulcan Iron and Bessemer Steel Works.

Garrison, James Harvey, clergyman, editor and author, was born on the 2d day of February, 1842, near Ozark, in what was then Greene-now Christian-County, Missouri. His maternal grandfather, Robert Kyle, was an Irishman, who migrated to this country from the North of Ireland soon after the Revolution, and located in Virginia. He was a soldier in the War of 1812, and died of sickness contracted in the army. His paternal grandfather, Isaac Garrison, was a North Carolinian, who migrated to east Tennessee about the beginning of the past century. His parents, James and Diana (Kyle) Garrison, moved from Hawkins County, east Ten

nessee, about the year 1835, and located in southwest Missouri, at the place above mentioned. In his early youth, James Harvey Garrison attended school at Ozark and became an adept in reading and spelling at a very early age. When eleven years old, his parents moved to a new and then unsettled part of the country, near where Billings is located. Here school advantages were scant, and hard work in opening a new farm took the place of study for a few years. At the age of fifteen years he made a public profession of religion, and united with the Baptist Church, of which his parents and grandparents before him were members, and began to take an active part in religious meetings, About this time a Yankee school-teacher, C. P. Hall, came into the neighborhood, and taught an excellent school for several terms, of which the subject of this sketch was a constant member, missing only a part of one term, to teach a district school, when he was sixteen years of age. The outbreak of the war found him again at Ozark, attending a high school, taught by the Yankee teacher above referred to. The excitement following the firing on Fort Sumter caused the discontinuance of the school, and he identified himself with a company of home guards, whose rendezvous was Springfield. After the battle of Wilson's Creek, he enlisted in the Twentyfourth Missouri Infantry Volunteers, was soon promoted to the rank of first sergeant, and was wounded quite severely on the evening of the second day of the battle of Pea Ridge, in March, 1862. He raised a company for the Eighth Missouri Cavalry Volunteers as soon as he was able to perform active duty, and was commissioned as captain September 15, 1862. He continued his services in the Union Army until the close of the war, participating in several battles, acting as assistant inspector general of his brigade for more than a year, and being promoted to the rank of major for meritorious service. during the last year of the war. When mustered out of the army in St. Louis, in 1865, he entered Abingdon College, in Abingdon, Illinois, and graduated in 1868 as bachelor of arts. One week after his graduation he was married to Miss Judith E. Garrett, of Camp Point, Illinois, who graduated in the same class with him, and who has been to him all that a faithful and affectionate wife can be to her husband. He entered college

for the purpose of devoting himself to the law, but during his college course he changed his denominational allegiance and identified himself with the Disciples of Christ, a fact which changed all his plans. He at once began preaching, and in the autumn of 1868 located with the church at Macomb, Illinois, to share the pulpit with J. C. Reynolds, who was publishing and editing "The Gospel Echo" at that place. A partnership was formed with Mr. Reynolds, beginning with January 1, 1869, by which he became one of the editors and publishers of that magazine. This was the beginning of his editorial career, which continues to the present. In 1871 "The Christian," of Kansas City, Missouri, was consolidated with "The Gospel Echo," and Mr. Garrison moved to Quincy, Illinois, where he published the consolidated paper under the title of "Gospel Echo and Christian," at first, later as "The Christian," and still later as "The Christian-Evangelist." In the year 1873 a joint stock company was organized and incorporated as "The Christian Publishing Company," and "The Christian" was moved to St. Louis, and was issued from that city from January 1, 1874, under the auspices of the Christian Publishing Company, with J. H. Garrison as editor-in-chief. He has resided in St. Louis ever since, with the exception of two years spent in England, when he was pastor of the church at Southport in 1881 and 1882, and almost two years spent in charge of a church in Boston, in 1885 and 1886. His connection with "The Christian-Evangelist," however, has never ceased. His temporary absences from the office were the result of ill health brought on by too close confinement to office work. He is also the author of several popular works, as "The Heavenward Way," a book for young Christians; "Alone with God," a devotional work, which has had a remarkable sale; "The Old Faith Restated," and "Half-Hour Studies at the Cross," besides a number of smaller booklets.

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seven miles west of Hermann, on the Missouri Pacific Railroad. It is one of the old settled points in the State. It has one church, a public school and a general store. Population, 1899 (estimated), 100.

Gasconade Bridge Disaster.-The completion of the Pacific Railroad to Jefferson City was an event of great importance to the people of St. Louis, and arrangements were made to celebrate it in a fitting manner. Accordingly, on November 1, 1855, an excursion train bearing the railway officials, the mayor and city council of St. Louis, two military companies and a large number of the most prominent people in the city, started for the State capital, where a grand public dinner was to be served, and the opening of the road celebrated with due ceremony. What was intended to be a joyous demonstration was, however, turned into a season of general mourning by an accident at Gasconade River. The bridge spanning that stream, which had not been fully completed, but which, it was thought, would carry the train safely over, gave way under the strain put upon it, and precipitated the locomotive and all but one of fourteen passenger cars into the water, thirty feet below. The result was appalling, twenty-eight persons being killed outright and more than thirty seriously injured. Among the kille 1 were Thomas O'Sullivan, chief engineer of the Pacific Railroad; Rev. Dr. Bullard, pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, and Rev. John Teasdale, pastor of the Third Baptist Church, of St. Louis; Mann Butler, the eminent Kentucky historian; Henry Chouteau, E. C. Yosti, E. Church Blackburn, and other prominent citizens of St. Louis. Immediately following the crash, and while the work of extricating the dead and wounded from the wreck was going on, a heavy rain and thunder storm prevailed, and survivors of the catastrophe remembered the scene as one weird and awful beyond description.

Gasconade Caves.-There are many caves in the bluffs fronting on the Gasconade River, nearly all of them abounding in deposits of saltpeter, which has been turned to profit in the manufacture of gunpowder. In some of the caves have been found stone axes and other implements.

Gasconade County.-A county a little east of the center of the State, bounded on the north by the Missouri River, which separates it from Montgomery and Warren Counties; east by Franklin and Crawford, south by Crawford and Phelps, and west by Maries and Osage Counties; area, 330,000 acres. The surface of the county is irregular, ranging from level prairie and bottom lands to ridges, hills and precipitous bluffs. The northern part is rough for some distance south of the Missouri River, with numerous valleys and rolling lands. The southern part is mostly table land, with numerous small prairies. Through the northwest section the Gasconade River winds in a devious course to the Missouri. The Bourbeuse River flows in an irregular course in a northwesterly direction through the southern part. The chief tributaries of the Gasconade are First, Second, Third and Pin Creeks, and of the Bourbeuse Dry Fork is the chief feeder, with numerous smaller streams. In the northern part Coal and Frene Creeks rise and flow into the Missouri River. In the northeastern part of the county are Boeuf, Berger and Little Berger Creeks. Numerous springs abound throughout the county. The valleys and bottom lands are rich, the soil a dark sandy loam of great productiveness. The prairie land in the southern part is generally good, containing a clayey soil that produces well by careful cultivation. The hills and uplands have a light covering of clayey soil over gravel, and are good grass and fruit lands. The hills and valleys along the streams are generally covered with growths of timber, consisting chiefly of the different oaks, hickory, elm, walnut, cottonwood, etc. Much of the timber in the valleys has been cleared away and the land converted into farms. About 40 per cent of the land is under cultivation, the remainder being in timber and grazing lands. Wheat and corn are the chief cereal productions, the average yield per acre of the former being twenty bushels and the latter fifty bushels. All the vegetables grow well, particularly potatoes, which average 150 bushels to the acre. The surplus products shipped from the county in 1898 were: Cattle, 192 head; hogs, 12,880 head; sheep, 262 head; horses and mules, 19 head; wheat, 146,757 bushels; corn, 28,423 bushels; flour, 996,080 pounds; corn meal, 4,320 pounds; shipstuff, 103,040 pounds; clover

seed, 180,000 pounds; lumber, 51,500 feet; walnut logs, 6,000 feet; cross-ties, 172,066 cooperage, 13 cars; wool, 13,574 pounds; poultry, 219,783 pounds; eggs, 379,290 dozen; butter, 18,340 pounds; dressed meats, 7,837 pounds; game and fish, 8,658 pounds; lard and tallow, 18,452 pounds; hides and pelts, 90,150 pounds; apples, 497 barrels; fresh fruits, 3,070 pounds; dried fruit, 38,919 pounds; vegetables, 61,330 pounds; onions, 2,829 bushels; whisky and wine, 196,081 gallons; nuts, 7,840 pounds; nursery stock, 3,460 pounds; furs, 1,910 pounds; feathers, 2,428 pounds. The most profitable products are wheat, corn, stock and fruit. Wine manufacture is an important industry in Gasconade County. There are over one hundred wine-growers in the county, producing annually from 200 to 20,000 gallons of wine, not including the large manufacturers at Hermann. While the report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics is here given as official, the output of wine from Gasconade County annually is several times the amount given in the report. Iron in considerable quan

tities is found in the western and southern portions of the county, and in the southern part lead and zinc exist in considerable deposits. Some years ago a lead mine was opened up on the Bourbeuse, but was abandoned because of difficulty experienced in excluding the water. Lately the lead and zinc of the county have been attracting considerable attention, with promise of much activity in mining operations. Silicate and coal have been discovered, but no attempt to develop the deposits have been made. There is plenty of good building stone in all parts of the county. Along the Gasconade are numerous caves, some of which have in them deposits of saltpeter, which in the early history of the county was gathered and shipped to . St. Louis, where it was used in the manufacture of gunpowder. When these caves were first discovered, in some of them were found rude stone axes and hammers, which gave evidence that in remote periods they had been occupied for some purpose by Indians, or a race preceding them. Near one of the caves on the Gasconade are the ruins of an ancient town, only small traces of which now remain. Dr. Beck, in his "Gazetteer," published in 1821, gave a description of the town, which appears to have been laid out with considerable regularity in squares, and

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