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The gown is an ample sort of garment, worn over the ordinary clothes, hanging down to the feet.-It is fashioned differently for ecclesiastics and for laymen.
Gourgues patriot, a private gentleman of Gascony. The Spa- lawyers, divines, and other graduates; who are hence Gown, niards having inhumanly massacred a colony of French- called men of the gown, or gownmen. Gown. men who had settled in Florida, Gourgues took a severe revenge on them, an account of which is given under the article FLORIDA. On his return he was received with acclamations by his countrymen, but was forbidden to appear at court. Queen Elizabeth invited him to command an English fleet against the Spaniards in 1593; but he died at Tours in his way to England.
GOURNAY, a town of France, in the department of Lower Seine, celebrated for its butter-market. Population 2550. It is situated on the river Ept, in E. Long. 1. 47. N. Lat. 49. 29.
GOURNAY, Mary de Jars de, a lady celebrated for her learning, was the daughter of William de Jars, lord of Neufvi and Gournay. After the death of her father, she was patronised by Montaigne and Cardinal Richelieu. To the daughter of the former she dedicated her Nosegay of Pindus; and composed several other works, the most considerable of which is Les Avis. She died at Paris in 1685, aged 80. The critics are divided concerning the reputation of this lady: by some she is styled the Syren of France; others say her works should have been buried with her.
GOUT. See MEDICINE Index.
GOWER, JOHN, one of our most ancient English poets, was contemporary with Chaucer, and his intimate friend. Of what family, or in what country he was born, is uncertain. He studied the law, and was some time a member of the society of Lincoln's-inn, where his acquaintance with Chaucer began. Some have asserted that he was a judge; but this is by no means certain. In the first year of Henry IV. he became blind; a misfortune which he laments in one of his Latin poems. He died in the year 1402; and was buried in St Mary Overie, which church he had rebuilt chiefly at his own expence, so that he must have lived in affluent circumstances. His tomb was magnificently and curiously ornamented. It still remains, but hath been repaired in later times. From the collar of SS round the neck of his effigies, which lies upon the tomb, it is conjectured that he had been knighted. As to his character as a man, it is impossible, at this distance of time, to say any thing with certainty. With regard to his poetical talents, he was undoubtedly admired at the time when he wrote, though a modern reader may find it difficult to discover much harmony or genius in any of his compositions. He wrote, 1. Speculum meditantis, in French, in ten books. There are two copies of this in the Bodleian library. 2. Vox clamantis, in Latin verse, in seven books. Preserved also in the Bodleian library, and in that of AllSouls. It is a chronicle of the insurrection of the commons in the reign of Richard II. 3. Confessio amantis; printed at Westminster by Caxon in 1493. Lond. 1532, 1554. It is a sort of poetical system of morality, interspersed with a variety of moral tales. 4. De rege Henrico IV. Printed in Chaucer's works. There are likewise several historical tracts, in manuscript, written by our author, which are to be found in different libraries; also some short poems printed in Chaucer's works.
GOWN, ROBE, a long upper garment, worn by
At Rome they gave the name "virile gown," toga virilis, to a plain kind of gown which their youth assumed when arrived at puberty. This they particularly denominated prætexta. See TOGA, PRÆTExta, &c.
"The remarkable dress of our British ancestors History of (Mr Whitaker observes), which continued very nearly Manthe same to the commencement of the last century chester, among the natives of Ireland, and has actually descended to the present among the mountaineers of Scotland, and is therefore rendered very familiar to our ideas, carried in it an astonishing appearance to the Romans. And it seems to have been equally the dress of the men and women among the nobles of Britain. But in a few years after the erection of the Roman British towns in the north, and in the progress of refinement among them, this ancient habit began to be disesteemed by the chiefs of the cities, and looked upon as the badge of ancient barbarism. And the growing prejudices were soon so greatly improved, that within 20 years only after the construction of the towns, the British sagum was actually resigned, and the Roman toga or gown assumed by many of them.
"The gown, however, never became universal in Britain and it seems to have been adopted only by the barons of the cities and the officers of the crown; and has therefore been transmitted to us as the robe of reverence, the ensign of literature, and the mantle of magistracy. The woollen and plaided garments of the chiefs having naturally superseded the leathern vestures of their clients, the former were still wore by the generality of the Britons; and they were retained by the gentlemen of the country, and by the commonalty both in country and city. That this was the case, appears evident from the correspondent conduct of the Gauls and Britons; who kept their Virgata Sagula to the last, and communicated them to the Franks and Saxons. The plaided drapery of the Britons still appeared general in the streets of Manchester; and must have formed a striking contrast to the gown of the chief, the dark mantle of Italy and it and the ornamented buttons on the shoulder are preserved among us even to the present moment, in the parti-coloured clothing and the tasseled shoulder knots of our footmen."
In some universities physicians wear a scarlet gown. In the Sorbonne, the doctors were always in gowns and caps. Beadles, &c. wear gowns of two or more colours.
Among the French officers, &c. they distinguish those of the short gown or robe; which are such as bave not been regularly examined. They have also barbers of the short gown, who are such as are obliged to practise in an inferior way to those of the long robe.
Gown is also taken in the general for civil magistrature, or the profession opposite to that of arms. In this sense it was that Cicero said cedant arma toga.
GOWRAN, a borough town, in the county of Kilkenny and province of Leinster, Ireland. N. Lat. A 2
GOYEN, JOHN VAN, painter of landscapes, cattle, and sea pieces, was born at Leyden in 1596; and was for some time instructed by Isaac Nicholai, who was reputed a good painter; but afterwards he became the disciple of Esaias Vandervelde, the most celebrated landscape painter of his time. Van Goyen very soon rose into general esteem; and his works are more universally spread through all Europe than the works of any other master, for he possessed an uncommon readiness of hand and freedom of pencil. It was his constant pleasure and practice to sketch the views of villages and towns situated on the banks of rivers or canals; of the sea-ports in the Low Countries; and sometimes of inland villages, where the scenes around them appeared to him pleasing or picturesque. Those be afterwards used as subjects for his future landscapes; enriching them with cattle, boats, and figures in character, just as the liveliness of his imagination directed. He understood perspective extremely well, and also the principles of the chiaro-scuro; which branches of knowledge enabled him to give his pictures a strong and agreeable effect. He died in 1656, aged 60.— His usual subjects were sea-pieces, or landscapes with views of rivers, enlivened with figures of peasants either ferrying over cattle, drawing their nets in still water, or going to or returning from market. Sometimes he'represented huts of boors on the banks of rivers, with overhanging trees, and a beautiful reflection of their branches from the transparent surface of the waters. These were the subjects of his best time, which he generally marked with his name and the year; and the high finished pictures of Van Goyen will be for ever estimable. But as he painted abundance of pictures, some are slight, some too yellow, and some negligently finished; though all of them have merit, being marked with a free, expeditious, and easy pencil, and a light touch. His pictures frequently have a grayish cast; which did not arise from any mismanagement of the tints, or any want of skill in laying on the colours; but was occasioned by his using a colour called Haerlem blue, much approved of at that time, though now entirely disused, because the artists found it apt to fade into that grayish tint; and it hath also rendered the pictures of this master exceedingly difficult to be cleaned without injuring the finer touches of the finishing. His best works are valued so highly in most parts of Europe, and especially in the Low Countries, that they deservedly afford large prices, being ranked in Holland with the pictures of Teniers; and at this time are not easily procured, particularly if they are undamaged, though his slighter performances are sufficiently com
GRAAF, REGNIER DE, a celebrated physician, born at Schoonhaven, in Holland, in 1641. He studied physic in Prussia. He was educated in Leyden, where he acquired great honour by publishing a treatise De Succo Pancreatico. He also published three pieces upon the organs of generation, both male and female; upon which subject he had a controversy with Swam merdam. He died young, in 1673; and his works,
with his life prefixed, were published at Leyden in Graaf 1677, in 8vo.
Η GRABE, JOHN ERNEST, a very learned writer in Grace. the beginning of the 18th century, a native of Konigsberg, in Prussia. He was educated in the Lutheran religion; but the reading of the fathers led him into doubts. He presented to the electoral consistory at Sambia in Prussia a memorial containing his doubts. The elector gave orders to three eminent divines to answer them. Their answers shook him a little in his resolution of embracing the Roman Catholic religion; and one of them, Spener, advised him to go to England. He went; and King William gave him a pension, which was continued by Queen Anne. He was ordained a priest of the church of England, and honoured with the degree of doctor of divinity by the uni versity of Oxford; upon which occasion Dr George Smalridge pronounced two Latin orations, which were afterwards printed. He wrote, 1. Spicelegium S. S. Patrum, ut et Hereticorum sæculi post Christum natum, 8vo. 2. An edition of the Septuagint, from the Alexandrian manuscript in St James's library. 3. Notes on Justin, &c.; and other works, which are esteemed by the learned.
GRACCHUS, TIBERIUS, elected tribune of the Roman people, demanded in the senate, in their name, the execution of the Agrarian law; by which all persons possessing above 200 acres of land were to be deprived of the surplus, for the benefit of the poor citizens, amongst whom an equal distribution of them was to be made. Having carried his plan into execution by violent measures, he fell a victim to his zeal, being assassinated by his own party, 133 B. C. Caius his brother, pursuing the same steps, was killed by the consul Opimius, 121 B. C. See (history of) ROME.
GRACE, among divines, is taken, 1. For the free love and favour of God, which is the spring and source of all the benefits we receive from him. 2. For the work of the Spirit renewing the soul after the image of God; and continually guiding and strengthening the believer to obey his will, to resist and mortify sin, and overcome it.
GRACE is also used, in a peculiar sense, for a short prayer said before and after meat.
The proofs of the moral obligation of this ceremony, drawn from different passages of the New Testament, are so well known, that it is needless to insist on them here. Some others, drawn from the practice of different nations, and of very remote antiquity, may not be disagreeable to our readers.
1. Athenæus tells us, in his Deipnosoph. lib. ii. that in the famous regulation made by Amphictyon king of Athens with respect to the use of wine, both in sacrifices and at home, he required that the name of Jupiter the Sustainer should be decently and reverently pronounced. The same writer, in lib. iv. p. 149. quotes Hermeias, an author extant in his time, who informs us of a people in Egypt, inhabitants of the city of Naucratis, whose custom it was on certain occasions, after they had placed themselves in the usual posture of eating at the table, to rise again and kneel; when the priest or precentor of the solemnity began to chant a grace, according to a stated form amongst them; and when that was over, they joined in the meal in a solemn sacrificial manner. Heliodorus has a
no particular name, though his relation is very accurate and circumstantial; namely, that on certain special occasions, before "they took their meals, they placed themselves in a proper decent order; when, lifting up their hands and eyes to heaven, they prayed to God that he would be pleased to be propitious to them in the use of those his good creatures."
From the Hebrew ritual it appears, that the Jews had their hymns and psalms of thanksgiving, not only after eating their passover, but on a variety of other occasions, at and after meals, and even between their several courses and dishes; as when the best of their wine was brought upon the table, or their aromatic confections, or the fruit of the garden, &c. On the day of the passover was sung Psalm cxiv. "When Israel came out of Egypt," &c.
Aristaus has a passage full on the present subject. "Moses," says he, "commands that when the Jews are going to eat or drink, the company should immediately join in sacrifice or prayer." Where Rabbi EleaZar (upon that author) met with this sentence, has been controverted. But supposing it not be found in scriptis, it is sufficient for us to know that the Jews did constantly practise this custom, upon the foundation of an ancient and general tradition and usage. That the prophet Daniel gave thanks before meat, is evident from the Apocryphal book concerning Bel and the Dragon, where, ver. 38, 39, we find, that "Daniel said, Thou hast remembered me, O God! neither hast thou forsaken them who seek thee and love thee.. So Daniel arose, and did eat." Of this text Prudentia takes notice in Cathemirin, hymn iv.
His sumptis Danielis excitavit
Where, by the way, it may be observed, that the poet is a little mistaken in making the prophet give thanks after meat; whereas, according to the text, he did it before..
GRACE, or Gracefulness, in the human character; an agreeable attribute, inseparable from motion as opposed to rest, and as comprehending speech, looks, gesture, and loco-motion.
As some motions are homely, the opposite to graceful; it is to be inquired, With what motions is this attribute connected? No man appears graceful in a mask; and therefore, laying aside the expressions of the countenance, the other motions may be genteel, may be elegant, but of themselves never are graceful. Á motion adjusted in the most perfect manner to answer its end, is elegant; but still somewhat more is required to complete our idea of grace or gracefulness..
What this unknown more may be, is the nice point. One thing is clear from what is said, that this more must arise from the expressions of the countenance: and from what expressions so naturally as from those which indicate mental qualities, such as sweetness, benevolence, elevation, dignity? This promises to be a fair analysis: because of all objects mental qualities affect us the most;
Grace. passage in his Ethiopics to the same purpose, that it was the custom of the Egyptian philosophers to pour out libations and put up ejaculations before they sat down to meals. Porphyry, in his treatise De abstin. lib. iv. p. 408. gives a great character of the Samnean gymnosophists in Egypt for the strictness of their life: as one article in their favour, he observes, that at the sounding of a bell before their meals, which consisted only of rice, bread, fruits, and herbs, they went to prayers; which being ended, and not before, the bell sounded again, and they sat down to eating. In general this was a religious usage or rite among the ancient Greeks; and derived from yet older ages, if Clement of Alexandria rightly informs us. He mentions, that these people when they met together to refresh themselves with the juice of the grape, sung a piece of music, in imitation of the Hebrew psalms, which they called a scholion. Livy, lib. xxxix. speaks of it as a settled custom among the old Romans, that they offered sacrifice and prayer to the gods at their meals and compotations. But one of the fullest testimonies to our purpose is given by Quintilian, Declam. 301. Adisti mensam, says he, ad quam cum venire cœpimus, Deos invocamus; "We approached the table (at supper together), and then invoked the gods."
The Jesuit Trigautius, in his very elegant and instructive narrative of the Christian expedition of their missionaries into China, book i. p. 69. gives this account of the people there in the particular now under consideration. "Before they place themselves for partaking of an entertainment, the person who makes it sets a vessel, either of gold, or silver, or marble, or some such valuable material, in a charger full of wine, which he holds with both his bands, and then makes a low bow to the person of chief quality or character at the table. Then from the hall or dining-room, he goes into the porch or entry, where he again makes a very low bow, and turning his face to the south, pours out this wine upon the ground as a thankful oblation to the Lord of heaven. After this, repeating his reverential obeisance, he returns into the ball," &c.
The Turks pray for a blessing on their meat; and
2. The fact, therefore, with respect to the heathen
Philo, in his book De vita contemplativa, gives an
Grace, and the impression made by graceful appearance upon Graces, every spectator of taste, is too deep for any cause purely corporeal.
The next step is, to examine what are the mental qualities, that in conjunction with elegance of motion, produce a graceful appearance. Sweetness, cheerfulness, affability, are not separately sufficient, nor even in conjunction. Dignity alone, with elegant motion, produces a graceful appearance; but still more graceful with the aid of other qualities, those especially that are the most exalted. See DIGNITY.
But this is not all. The most exalted virtues may be the lot of a person whose countenance has little expression such a person cannot be graceful. Therefore to produce this appearance, we must add another circumstance, viz. an expressive countenance, displaying to every spectator of taste, with life and energy, every thing that passes in the mind.
Collecting these circumstances together, grace may be defined, "that agreeable appearance which arises from elegance of motion and from a countenance expressive of dignity." Expressions of other mental qualities are not essential to that appearance, but they heighten it greatly.
Of all external objects, a graceful person is the most agreeable.
Dancing affords, great opportunity for displaying grace, and haranguing still more. See DANCING, DECLAMATION, and ORATORY.
But in vain will a person attempt to be graceful who is deficient in amiable qualities. A man, it is true, may form an idea of qualities he is destitute of; and, by means of that idea, may endeavour to express these qualities by looks and gestures: but such studied expression will be too faint and obscure to be graceful.
Act of GRACE, the appellation given to the act of parliament 1696, c. 32. which allows prisoners for civil debts to be set at liberty, upon making oath that they have not wherewithal to support themselves in prison, unless they are alimented by the creditors on whose diligences they were imprisoned, within ten days after intimation made for that purpose.
Days of GRACE, three days immediately following the term of payment of a bill, within which the creditor must protest it if payment is not obtained, in order to intitle him to recourse against the drawer.
GRACE is also a title of dignity given to dukes, archbishops, and in Germany to barons and other inferior princes.
GRACES, GRATIA, Charities, in the heathen theology, were fabulous deities, three in number, who attended on Venus. Their names are, Aglaia, Thalia, and Euphrosyne; i. e. shining, flourishing, and gay; or, according to some authors, Pasithea, Euphrosyne, and Ægiale. They were supposed by some to be the daughters of Jupiter and Eurynome the daughter of Oceanus; and by others, to be the daughters of Bacchus and Venus.
Some will have the Graces to have been four; and make them the same with the Hora "hours", or rather with the four seasons of the year. A marble in the king of Prussia's cabinet represents the three Graces in the usual manner, with a fourth seated and covered with a large veil, with the words underneath, Ad Sorores IIII. But this groupe we may understand to be the
three Graces, and Venus, who was their sister, as being Graces daughter of Jupiter and Dione.
U The Graces are always supposed to have hold of Grafting. each other's hands, and never parted. They were painted naked, to show that the Graces borrow nothing from art, and that they have no other beauties than what are natural.
Yet in the first ages they were not represented naked, as appears from Pausanias, lib. vi. and lib. ix. who describes their temple and statues. They were of wood, all but their head, feet, and hands, which were white marble. Their robe or gown was gilt: one of them held in her hand a rose, another a dye, and the third a sprig of myrtle.
GRACILIS, a muscle of the leg, thus called from its slender shape. See ANATOMY, Table of the Muscles.
GRACULA, the GRAKLE, a genus of birds belonging to the order of pica. See ORNITHOLOGY Index.
GRACULUS. See CORVUS, ORNITHOLOGY Index. GRADATION, in general, the ascending step by step, or in a regular and uniform manner.
GRADATION, in Logic, a form of reasoning, otherwise called Sorites.
GRADATION, in Painting, a gradual and insensible change of colour, by the diminution of the tints and shades.
GRADATION, in Rhetoric, the same with CLIMAX. GRADISKA, a strong town of Hungary in Sclavonia, on the frontiers of Croatia, taken by the Turks in 1691. It is seated on the river Save, in E. Long. 17. 55. N. Lat. 45. 38..
GRADISKA, a strong town of Italy, in a small island of the same name on the frontiers of Friuli, in E. Long. 13. 37. N. Lat. 46. 6. It is subject to the house of Austria.
GRADO, a strong town of Italy, in a small island of the same name, on the coast of Friuli, and in the Austrian territory. E. Long. 13. 27. N. Lat. 45. 46.
GRADUATE, a person who has taken a degree in the university. See DEGREE.
GRAVIUS, JOHN GEORGE, one of the most learned writers in the 27th century. In the 24th year of his age, the elector of Brandenburg made him professor at Doisbourg. In 1658, he was invited to Deventer to succeed his former master Gronovius. In 1661, he was appointed professor of eloquence at Utrecht; and 12 years after he had the professorship of politics and history conferred on him. He fixed his thoughts here, and refused several advantageous offers. He had, however, the satisfaction to be sought after by divers princes, and to see several of them come from Germany to study under him. He died in 1703, aged 71. His Thesaurus antiquitatum et historiarum Italia, &c. and other works, are well known.
GRAFTING, or ENGRAFTING, in Gardening, is the taking a shoot from one tree, and inserting it into another, in such a manner that both may unite closely and become one tree. By the ancient writers on husbandry and gardening, this operation is called incision, to distinguish it from inoculation or budding, which they call inserere oculòs.
Grafting has been practised from the most remote antiquity;
Grafting, antiquity; but its origin and invention is differently Graham. related by naturalists. Theophrastus tells us, that a bird having swallowed a fruit whole, cast it forth into a cleft or cavity of a rotten tree; where mixing with some of the putrified parts of the wood, and being washed with the rains, it budded, and produced within this tree another tree of a different kind. This led the husbandman to certain reflections, from which soon afterwards arose the art of engrafting. For the different methods of performing this operation, see GARDENING Index.
GRAHAM, JAMES, Marquis of Montrose, was comparable to the greatest heroes of antiquity. He undertook, against almost every obstacle that could terrify a less enterprising genius, to reduce the kingdom of Scotland to the obedience of the king; and his success corresponded to the greatness of the undertaking. By valour, he in a few months, almost effectuated his design; but, for want of supplies, was forced to abandon his conquests. After the death of Charles I. he made a second attempt, with a few men, but was immediately defeated by a numerous army. As he was leaving the kingdom in disguise, he was betrayed into the hands of his enemy, by the lord Aston, his intimate friend. He was carried to his execution with every circumstance of indignity that wanton cruelty could invent; and hanged upon a gibbet 30 feet high, with the book of his exploits appended to his neck. He bore this reverse of fortune with bis usual greatness of mind, and expressed a just scorn at the rage and the insult of his enemies. We meet with many instances of valour in this active reign; but Montrose is the only instance of heroism. He was executed May 21. 1650. See BRITAIN, N° 137, 138, 143, 165.
GRAHAM, Sir Richard, Lord Viscount Preston, eldest son of Sir George Graham of Netherby, in Cumberland, Bart. was born in 1648. He was sent ambassador by Charles II. to Louis XIV. and was master of the wardrobe and secretary of state under James II. But when the revolution took place, he was tried and condemned, on an accusation of attempting the restoration of that prince; though he obtained a pardon by the queen's intercession. He spent the remainder of his days in retirement, and published an elegant translation of "Boethius on the consolation of philosophy." He died in 1695.
GRAHAM, George, clock and watch-maker, the most ingenious and accurate artist in his time, was born in 1675- After his apprenticeship, Mr Tompion received him into his family, purely on account of his merit; and treated him with a kind of parental affection as long as he lived. Besides his universally acknowledged skill in his profession, he was a complete mechanic and astronomer; the great mural arch in the observatory at Greenwich was made for Dr Halley, under his immediate inspection, and divided by his own hand and from this incomparable original, the best foreign instruments of the kind are copies made by English artists. The sector by which Dr Bradley first discovered two new motions in the fixed stars, was of his invention and fabric: and when the French academicians were sent to the north to ascertain the figure of the earth, Mr Graham was thought the fittest person in Europe to supply them with instruments; those
who went to the south were not so well furnished. He Graham
GRAHAM'S Dyke. See ANTONINUS's Wall.
GRAIN is also the name of a small weight, the twentieth part of a scruple in apothecaries weight, and the twenty-fourth of a pennyweight troy.
A grain-weight of gold-bullion is worth two-pence, and that of silver but half a farthing.
GRAIN also denotes the component particles of stones and metals, the veins of wood, &c. Hence cross-grained, or against the grain, means contrary to the fibres of wood, &c.
GRALLÆ, in Ornithology, is an order of birds analogous to the bruta in the class of mammalia in the Linnæan system. See ORNITHOLOGY.
GRAMINA, GRASSES; one of the seven tribes or natural families, into which all vegetables are distributed by Linnæus in his Philosophia Botanica. They are defined to be plants which have very simple leaves, a jointed stem, a husky calyx termed gluma, and a single seed. This description includes the several sorts of corn as well as grasses. In Tournefort they constitute a part of the fifteenth class, termed apetali ; and in Linnæus's sexual method, they are mostly contained in the second order of the third class, called triandria digynia.
This numerous and natural family of the grasses has engaged the attention and researches of several eminent botanists. The principal of these are, Ray, Monti, Micheli, and Linnæus.
M. Monti, in his Catalogus stirpium agri Bononiensis gramina ac hujus modi affinia complectens, printed at Bononia in 1719, divides the grasses from the disposition of their flowers, as Theophrastus and Ray have divided them before him, into three sections or orders.
These are, 1. Grasses having flowers collected in a spike. 2. Grasses having their flowers collected in a panicle or loose spike. 3. Plants that in their habit and external appearance are allied to the grasses.
This class would have been natural if the author had not improperly introduced sweet-rush, juncus, and arrow-headed grass, into the third section. Monti enumerates about 306 species of the grasses, which he reduces under Tournefort's genera; to these he has added three new genera.
Scheuchzer in his Aristographia, published likewise in 1719, divides the grasses, as Monti, from the disposition of their flowers, into the five following sections: 1. Grasses with flowers in a spike, as phalaris, anthoxanthum, and frumentum. 2. Irregular grasses, as schoenanthus, and cornucopiæ. 3. Grasses with flowers growing in a simple panicle or loose spike, as reed and millet. 4. Grasses with flowers growing in a compound panicle, or diffused spike, as oats and poa. 5. Plants by their habit nearly allied to the grasses, as cypress-grass, scirpus, linagrostis, rush, and scheuchzeria.
Scheuchzer has enumerated about four hundred spe cies, which he describes with amazing exactness.