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supported by Central and Southern
Gaul as a candidate for the Crown,
197; refuses the Crown and procures
the election of Lewis, 197, 615; his ne-
gotiations with Ethelstan, 197, 198;
acts as the guardian of Lewis, 198;
makes war on the King, 200; does
homage to Otto, 204; marries Had-
wisa, daughter of Henry the Fowler,
207; change of his policy on the
birth of his son, ib.; confirmed in
his duchies by Lewis, 210; invades
Normandy in concert with Lewis,
210, 213; further dissensions with
Lewis, 214; keeps Lewis in prison,
218; restores his kingship, 220; re-
ceives the commendation of Nor-
mandy, 221; excommunicated at Trier,
227; by Pope Agapetus, 228; sur-
renders Laon and submits, ib.; pro-
motes the election of Lothar, 230;
receives the grant of Aquitaine, ib. ;
defeated before Poitiers, ib.; his
death, 231; his doctrine of commen-
dation, 588.

Hugh Capet. King of the French, his
birth, i. 207; succeeds his father
under the guardianship of Richard
the Fearless, 231; does homage to
Lothar, ib.; receives the commenda-
dation of Richard, ib.; his policy
compared with that of his father,
235; his journey to Rome and
alliance with Otto, 237; he assists
Lewis the Fifth. 238; elected King
at Senlis, and crowned at Noyon,
239; permanence of his dynasty,
ib.; his struggles with Charles of
Lotharingia, 240; associates his son
Robert in the Kingdom, ib.; effects
of his accession, 241; legend of his
origin, 251; ground of his election,
597; speaks French, 6×6.
Hugh the Frenchman betrays Exeter
to the Danes, i. 315, 519.
Hugh, Count of Challon and Bishop of
Auxerre, war of Richard the Good
with, i. 460.

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Humbra, used to express the Ouse,
ii. 688.
Hungary, its commendation to the Em-
pire, i. 119; the English Ethelings
sheltered in, i. 410, ii. 368, 649; its
wars with the Empire, ii. 651.
Hunting, legislation of Cnut about, i.
433, 732; Eadward the Confessor's
love of, ii. 25.
Huntingdonshire, its varied relations to
the Earldoms, ii. 558, 559.
Hwiccas, their origin and territory, i.
40, 561; succession of their Earls, ii.
563, 566.

Hyde History, its version of the death
of Godwine, ii. 592.


Ida, first King of the Northumbrians,
i. 25; his fortifications at Bam-
borough, 308.
Imperator, title borne by English
Kings, i. 132, 552; its special force,
135, 552; used by Kings of Castile,
553; in what sense applied to Henry
the Fowler and Otto the Great, ib.
Imperium, use of the word by Bada, i.

543; question as to its meaning as
applied to English Kings, 553.
Indulf, King of Scots, his acquisition of
Edinburgh, i. 573, 574.
Infantry, the only force in use in Eng-
land, i. 278.

Ingelgar, first Count of Anjou, ii. 269;
peasant origin of his family, ib.
Ingram, Dr., his version of the ballad
on the death of Ælfred, i. 756.
Ingulf, false, quoted, ii. 531, 560.
Ipswich, plundered by the Norwegians,
i. 268.
Ireland, Danish settlers in, i. 44; help

given by them to the Danes in Eng-
land, 56, 60; their defeat at Brun-
anburh, ib.; their ravages in Wales,
282; English slaves sold to, 333;
slave-trade between that country and
Bristol, ii. 151; flight of Harold and
Leofwine to. who are well received
by King Diarmid, 152; ships hired
by Elfgar, the rebel Earl, 386.
Irish Annals, their account of the wars

of Odo of Chartres, ii. 620; of Lulach
of Scotland, 647.

Islip, grant of, to Westminster, ii. 561.


Jacqueline of Hainault, her language to
her husband compared with the case
of Eadward and Eadgyth, ii. 528.


James the First, his visit to Denmark,
i. 302.

James the Second, theories as to his
abdication or deposition, i. 105; com-
pared with Ethelred, 360, 595.
Janberht, Archbishop of Canterbury,
his relations with Offa and alleged
treason, i. 560.

Jehmarc, Under-king in Scotland, his
submission to Cnut, i. 446, 447.
Jersey, first mention of, i. 469.
Jerusalem, Duke Robert's pilgrimage
to, i. 748.

Jocelin, his nomenclature of the Chron-
icles, i. 399.

John the Fifteenth, Pope, reconciles
Ethelred and Richard the Fearless,
i. 284, 630.

John, King of England, his lawful
election, i. 106, 597; his commen-
dation of his Kingdom to the Pope,
120; his change of the royal style,

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Karlings, later, their reign at Laôn, i.
154; they retain their Teutonic cha-
racter, 157; popular misconceptions
about them, 160, 199; the line ends
in Germany, 173; contrasted with
the later Merwings, 199; their fall
determined by the union of Nor-
mandy and Ducal France, 222; lose
the German Protectorate, 235; end
of the dynasty, 238; continue to reign
in Lotharingia, 242; amount of real
power retained by them, 248, 249;
retain the Teutonic speech, 606, 607.
Kemble, Mr., his "Saxons in England,"
i. 68; his constitutional views, 68, 79;
his chapter on the Mark, 83; on the
Comitatus, 85; on the Gerefa, 98;
on the action of the Witan, 335,
590, 593; his views of the Bret-
waldadom, 542-544; of the legend of
Radiger, 557, 558; of the relations
between the Franks and the English,
558; on local nomenclature, 561-
563; on the use of the word Here-
toga, 581; on Ealdorman, 582; on
Cyning, 583; on the growth of the
Thegnhood, 588; on the constitution
of the Witenagemót, 590, 593; on
the deposition of Kings, 593, 596; on
the Housecarls, 733; on the Stallers,

Kenneth the Second, King of Scots, his
friendly relations with Eadgar, i. 64,
65, 126; question of the grant of
Lothian to, 65, 126, 575; his death,
326; his alleged signatures to char.
ters, 595.

Kent, origin and character of the King-
dom, i. 23; first English state to
receive Christianity, 28; its su-
premacy at the time of the conver-
sion, 29; its secondary position from
the seventh century onwards, 35;
becomes an appanage of Wessex, 40;
letter from its Gemót to Ethelstan,
103; men of, defeated by the Danes
in 999, 294; its two Kingdoms and
two Bishopricks, 342; action of the
local Witan, ib. ; name known to
Gregory of Tours, 558; change from
Heretogan to Kings in, 580; acts of
its local Witan, 591.

King, origin of the word, i. 583; its
derivation, 583, 584; never had an
English feminine, ib.; Kingdoms
called from their Kings, 600, 601.
King of England or King of the Eng-
lish? i. 584-586.

Kingship, English, how affected by the
Norman Conquest, i. 70; its origin,

70, 73; distinction between Kings
and Ealdormen, 74, 75, 579; fluc-
tuation between Kings and Ealdor-
men, 75, 580; origin of the title,
76, 583; Teutonic Kingship na-
tional, not territorial, 77; titles of
English Kings, ib.; growth of the
kingly power, 78; private estates
possessed by Kings, 94; encroach-
ments of the Kings on the Folkland,
ib.; Kings deposed by the Witan,
104, 105; chosen by the Witan, 106;
commonly chosen from one family,
107; preference due to a King's son,
ib.; due only when he was the son
of a crowned King, 107, 626; value
of the late King's recommendation,
108, 263; relations between King
and Witan, 110; their joint action,
III; importance of the King's per-
sonal character, 113, 260, 380; over-
whelming influence of an able King,
114; his importance as the executive,
115; his influence as personal lord,
ib.; imperial titles assumed by Eng-
lish Kings, 132; their origin and
force, 133-142; English Kings rarely
visited the Continent, 303; rarely
married foreign wives, ib.; popular
element in royal elections, 581, 592;
preference due to the royal family,

King's Teignton, burned by the Danes
in 1001, i. 307.

Kinnamos, John, his description of
Frederick Barbarossa, i. 553.
Kirk, Mr., quoted, i. 433.
Knighton, Henry, his account of the
death of Eadmund Ironside, i. 697;
of the death of Eadric, 721.
Knytlinga Saga, its account of the death
of Swegen, i. 666; of Ethelred and
Olaf, 687; of the Olney compact, 692;
of the death of Eadmund Ironside,
697; of the origin of Earl Godwine,
706; of the war of Cnut and Ead-
mund, 710; of the marriage of Cnut
with Elfgifu of Northampton, 714; of
the division of Cnut's dominions, 751.
Köln, its early commerce with London,
i. 281.

König. See Cyning.


Lacman, a heathen Sea-King, assists
Duke Richard of Normandy against
Odo of Chartres, i. 456.
Lacman of Man, his pilgrimage, ii.


Lady. See Hlæfdige.
Lambert, alleged baptismal name of
Cnut, i. 674.

Lambert of Hertzfeld, on the penance
of Godfrey of Lotharingia, ii. 594-
Lambeth, Harthacnut dies at, i. 525.
Landesgemeinden in Switzerland, i. 73,
ii. 331.

Lanfranc, opposes the views of Beren
gar in the Synod of Rome, ii. 115,
225; his connexion with the Abbey
of Bec, 212, 223; consecrates the
church at Bec, 220; his origin
and character, ib.; his birth at
Pavia, 221; his knowledge of Greek,
and of Civil Law, 221, 222; his
school at Avranches, 223; becomes
Prior of Bec, 224; his favour with
Duke William, 225.

Language in the tenth century, notices
of, i. 606-609.

Langtoft, Peter, on the relations be-
tween Harold and Tostig, ii. 656.
Laon, the capital of the later Karlings,

i. 154, 193; the Teutonic centre in
Gaul, 157; its language still Teutonic
in the tenth century, 193; Herbert's
fortress at, 200; alleged imprison-
ment of Richard the Fearless at, 212;
surrendered by Lewis to Hugh, 220;
attempt of Lewis and Otto on, 225;
the city recovered for Lewis, 228;
the tower surrendered by Hugh, ib.;
an outpost of the German interest,
235; its attachment to the Karlings,

Lappenberg, Dr., his view of the policy

of Cnut, i. 412; on the relations of
Ethelred with Normandy, 633: on
Eadric, 643; on the taking of Can-
terbury, 662; on the pilgrimage of
Cnut, 729; on Cnut's laws, 732; on
the Housecarls, 733; on Henry the
Third's Hungarian war, ii. 651; his
mistake about Waltham Abbey, 670.
Latham, Dr., his views about Brittia
and Brettania, i. 556.

Latin language, survived in Italy, Spain,
and Gaul, i. 15.

Latinus, use of the word as applied to
language, i. 180, 606.

Law, renewal of, meaning of the phrase,
i. 218, 417.

Law, Roman, its retention on the Con-
tinent, i. 16; its small influence in
England, 17.

Le Cointe, Abbé, on the battle of Val-
ès-dunes, ii. 617.
Legitimacy, slightly regarded in Nor-
mandy, i. 205.


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Leo the Ninth, Pope, commendation of
the Normans of Italy to, i. 119;
named Pope by the Emperor Henry
the Third, ii. 96; story of Hilde-
brand's rebuking him, ib.; excom-
municates Godfrey of Lotharingia,
97; ecclesiastical councils held by,
IIO, III, 112, 115; grants a dispen-
sation to Eadward the Confessor,

Leo, Bishop of Trier, his embassy to
Normandy and England, i. 284,

Leofgar, Bishop of Hereford, ii. 397;
his death in battle, ib.

Leofric, son of Leofwine, proposes a
division of the Kingdom between
Harthacnut and Harold, i. 482; his
government of Mercia, ii. 48, 556;
its extent, 48; his wife Godgifu,
b.; his liberality to ecclesiastical
foundations, 48, 414; relations be-
tween him and Godwine, 49; op-
poses the petition of Swegen Estrith-
son for English help, 90; brings his
forces to aid Eadward at Gloucester,
141; war between Eadward and God-
wine hindered by his intervention,
144; his cooperation with Harold,
400; his death, 414; retains the
supremacy over all Mercia, 558;
Lincolnshire and the other shires
revert to him, 561; Herefordshire
no part of his government, ib.; his
mention in a charter of Bishop
Æthelstan, 563; Worcestershire re-
verts to him, 566; his family, 658-

Leofric, Abbot of Peterborough, nephew
of the Earl, ii. 348.

Leofric, Chancellor to King Eadward,
appointed to the united Bishopricks
of Devonshire and Cornwall, ii. 83;
removes the see to Exeter, ib.;
enthroned by the King and his
wife, 84; subjects his Canons to the
rule of Chrodegang of Metz, ib.
Leofsige, Ealdorman of the East-Saxons,
negotiates a payment to the Danes,


i. 311; murders Efic and is out-
lawed, 312.

Leofstan. See Ethelnoth.
Leofwine, father of Leofric, succeeds
Eadric in Mercia, i. 415, 556, 718;
his supremacy over all Mercia, 563,
564; his family, 717, 720; his signa-
tures to charters, 718, 719; his rank,
719; relations of Cnut with his
family, ib.
Leofwine, fifth son of Earl Godwine,
ii. 35; flies with Harold to Ireland,
152; returns with him to England,
313; appointed Earl of Essex, Kent,
&c., 419; notices of his Earldom,
560, 567, 568; question of his earlier
appointment, 567.
Leofwine, Bishop of Lichfield, ii. 343,

Leominster, nunnery of, suppressed on

account of the misconduct of Eadgifu,
ii. 88, 592; revenues of, possessed by
Eadgyth, 550.

Lewis the Pious, Emperor, his reign
and deposition, i. 155, 156; his legis-
lation on behalf of the Spanish refu-
gees, 587; division of the Empire
among his sons, 600.

Lewis, King of the West Franks, de-
feats the Northmen at Saulcourt, i. 161.
Lewis (Ultramarinus) King of the West
Franks, his sojourn in England, i.
183; Eastern Gaul favours his elec-
tion, 197; elected by favour of Hugh
the Great, ib.; returns from England,
198; crowned at Laôn, ib.; declares
his independence of Hugh, 199; his
character and position, 109, 200; re-
ceives the allegiance of Lotharingia,
202; his war with Otto, ib.; his
activity, 203; his relations to Otto,
205, 208; marries Gerberga, 205;
invades Normandy in concert with
Hugh the Great, 209, 211; defeats
the heathen Normans and occupies
Rouen, 211, 213; his sojourn at
Rouen, 214; his probable designs on
Normandy, 215; defeated and taken
prisoner by Harold Blaatand, 216,
217; transferred to Hugh the Great,
218; renewal of his Kingship, 220;
joins Otto and Conrad against Hugh
and Richard, 223, 224; fails before
Paris and Rouen, 225; his fortunes
improve, 226; holds various councils
together with Otto, 226, 227; re-
covers Laôn, 228; his progress in
Aquitaine and Burgundy, ib.; his
death, 229; different accounts of his
election, 614-616.

Lewis, son of Lothar, associated in the
Kingdom with his father, i. 237; his
marriage and divorce, ib.; succeeds
as sole King, 238; besieges Rheims
and dies, ib.

Lewis, Saint, compared with Ælfred, i.


Lewis the Eleventh, his imprisonment
at Peronne, i. 174.

Lewis the Second, Emperor, his dispute
with Basil for the title of Basileus, i.

Limoges, defeat of the Northinen at, i.
178, 181.

Lincoln, one of the Five Boroughs, i.

Lincolnshire, old principalities in, i.
561; its local nomenclature, 563; its
connexion with Leofric, ii. 561.
Lindesey, ravaged by the Danes in 993,
i. 281; submits to Swegen, 356; to
Cnut, 368; ravaged by Ethelred,
369; men of, at Assandun, 387; part
of the Earldom of Eadwine, ii. 561.
Lindisfarne, first seat of the Bishoprick

of Bernicia, i. 290.

Lingard, Dr., his account of the story
of Swegen, ii. 631.
Lithsmen, sailors of London so called,
i. 481; their share in choosing
Kings, 591.

Liudgardis of Vermandois, wife of Wil-
liam Longsword, i. 179; marries
Theobald of Chartres, 232.
Liudprand, his account of the dispute
for the title of Basileus, i. 553; his
use of geographical names, 602, 603.
Llywelyn of Dyfed, helps Eadmund

against Cumberland, i. 571.
Lombardy, change from Kings to Dukes
in, i. 75, 76, 580.

London, early condition of, i. 23; oc-
cupied by the Danes, 46; by Alfred,
46, 53; attendance of its citizens in
the Witenagemót, 103; burnt in 982,
265; its citizens defeat the Danes at
sea, 278; its military and commercial
importance, 278-281; comparison
with Paris, 278; origin and history
of the name, 279; origin of the
Tower, ib.; legislation for, under
Æthelstan and Ethelred, ib.; ex-
tent of its commerce, 279-280; special
connexion with Germany, 280, 281;
besieged by Olaf and Swegen, who
are beaten off by the citizens, 286;
Witenagemót held at, 294; Thurkill
beaten off by the citizens, 343;
Swegen beaten off by the citizens,
357, 358; their character as given

by William of Malmesbury, 357;
submits to Swegen, 358; holds out
in the last days of Ethelred, 377;
death and burial of Ethelred in, 378;
its citizens chose Eadmund King,
379; its three sieges by Cnut, 381-
385; different accounts of his ditches,
381-382; Eadmund's victory at, 385;
Danes winter in, 395; Eadmund dies
at, ib.; Danes of, side with Harold
against Harthacnut, 481; held by
Æthelred of Mercia, 563; called
Caput regni Merciorum, 564; not
included in any Earldom, 568; share
of its citizens in choosing Kings, 591,

Lord. See Haford.

Lord Lieutenant, use of the title, i. 405.
Lothar, Emperor, names of his king-
dom, i. 6oo.

Lothar, son of Lewis From-beyond-
Sea, change of policy under his
reign, i. 208; his accession, 229,
230; grants Aquitaine to Hugh the
Great, 230; receives the homage of
Hugh Capet, 231; his relations to
Richard the Fearless, 232; his al-
leged defeat by Harold Blaatand,
233; makes peace with Richard, 234;
his relations to Hugh Capet, 235;
his disputes with Otto the Second,
236; his raid on Aachen, ib.; makes
peace with Otto, ib.; again invades
Lotharingia, 237; invades Flanders,
238; his death, ib.

Lothariensis Rex, Henry the Third so
called, i. 601.
Lotharingia, origin of the Kingdom, i.
155, 600; its loyalty to the Karlings,
173, 193; attaches itself to Charles
the Simple, 173; to Lewis, 202; war
between Lewis and Otto for, 202,
203; disputes renewed between Lo-
thar and Otto the Second and Third,
236, 237; finally becomes a fief of the
Empire, 242; French and German
both spoken in, 607.
Lotharingian Prelates, promoted in
England, ii. 79, 582; policy of their
promotion, 80.

Lothen and Yrling, Danish pirates,
ravage the coast of England, ii. 94;
pursued by Earls Godwine and Har-
old, 95; escape to Flanders, ib.
Lothian, originally English, i. 35, 59,
573; question of its grant to Ken-
neth or to Malcolm the Second, i.
65, 573-579; its relations to Eng
land different from those of Scotland,
123-127; strictly an English Earl-

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