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Eadward, ib.; lands with Harold,
327; his behaviour at the Gemót,
331; his supplication to the King,
and speech to the people, 332; his
personal reconciliation to the King,
335; estimate of his conduct, 346;
his sickness, 347,349; and death, 349,
635, 636; Norman fictions about his
death, 350, 637; buried in the Old
Minster, 351; general grief of the na-
tion, ib.; true estimate of his charac-
ter, 352; questions as to him and
his sons stated by William of Malmes-
bury, 535; English characters of him
and Harold, 535-538; father and
son compared, 541; charge of sacri-
lege against, 542, 543; story of the
destruction of Berkeley Abbey, 544,
545; his disputes with the see of
Canterbury, 545, 546; lists of his
children, 553-555; accounts of his
banishment compared, 600-605; of
his return, 625-628; of his recon-
ciliation with Eadward, 629; growth
of the legend of his death, 637-640.
Godwine, Thegn of Lindesey, his coward-
ice, i. 281; his death at Assandun,
b.; his disputes with Evesham Abbey,
i. 506, ii. 551; question as to his
identity, i. 625.

Godwine, son of Bishop Elfsige, i. 306.
Godwine of Hertfordshire, tenure of his
lands, i. 587.

Godwine Porthund, murders Ælfhelm,
i. 325.

Godwine, Bishop of Rochester, captured
by the Danes at Canterbury, i. 350;
his signatures, ib.

Gorm the Old, founds the Danish mon-
archy, i. 215; makes the Danewerk,

Gospatric, Northumbrian Thegn, mur-
dered by order of Eadgyth and Tostig,
ii. 46, 478.
Gospatric (afterwards Earl) saves Tos-
tig's life, ii. 445.
Goths, their conversion compared with
that of England, i. 3.
Green, Mr., on Bishop Gisa's account of

his quarrel with Harold, ii. 674, 676.
Greenwich, Elfheah martyred at, i.
351, 352; fleet of Thurkill and Æthel-
red at, 359.
Gregory, King of Scots, his alleged
conquests, i. 572.

Grimbald of Plessis, joins the rebellion
against Duke William of Normandy,
ii. 244; his unsuccessful attempt to
seize William at Valognes, 245; his
fate, 265; his lands confiscated, 266.


Grote, Mr., his view of the Homeric
Assemblies, i. 80.

Gruffydd, son of Llywelyn, King of
North Wales, invades England, i.
502, ii. 55; his wars in South Wales,
ii. 56; is reconciled with King Ead-
ward, 87; accompanies Swegen in an
expedition against Gruffydd ap Rhyd-
derch, ib.; invades Herefordshire,
309; his victory near Leominster, ib.;
ravages Herefordshire, in alliance
with Elfgar, 386, 387; defeats Earl
Ralph near Hereford, 388; sacks
and burns Hereford, 390; escapes
with Elfgar into South Wales, 393;
sues for peace, 395; makes a new
incursion into Herefordshire, 396;
character of the war with him, 397;
again reconciled to Eadward, 398;
his oath of homage, 399; loses his
lands in Cheshire, ib.; marries Eald-
gyth, daughter of Elfgar, 416; his
renewed ravages in England, 465;
his palace at Rhuddlan, and Harold's
march thither, 466; his escape, 467;
sentence of deposition and outlawry
passed upon him, 471; killed by his
own people, 472.

Gruffydd, son of Rhydderch, King of
South Wales, expedition of Earl
Swegen and Gruffydd ap Llywelyn
against, ii. 87; allies himself with
Danish pirates, invades Gloucester-
shire, and defeats Bishop Ealdred,
109; overthrown and slain by Gruf-
fydd of North Wales, 386.
Guest, Dr., his views of the English
Conquest, i. 9 ; of the origin of
London, 279.
Gunhild, daughter of Harold Blaatand
and wife of Pallig, embraces Chris-
tianity, i. 306; killed in the massacre
of Saint Brice, 314.

Gunhild, daughter of Cnut and Emma,
i. 409; married to King Henry of
Germany, 451, 745.

Gunhild, niece of Cnut, marries succes-
sively the Earls Hakon and Harold,
i. 427; banished, with her sons, ii.
Gunhild, daughter of Godwine, ii. 36,
554, 555-

Gunnor, mistress and wife of Richard
the Fearless, i. 252; legends of, ib.
Guthmund, son of Steitan. See Justin.
Guthrum, his peace with Elfred and

baptism, i. 46-47; his settlement
compared with that of Rolf, 150.
Guy, Bishop of Amiens, his Carmen de
Bello, i. 464.

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Habkessen, wooden town of, ii. 606.
Hadwisa, daughter of Richard the

Fearless, marries Geoffrey of Bri-
tanny, i. 454.

Hadwisa, sister of Otto the Great,

marries Hugh the Great, i. 207.
Hakon, son of Eric and nephew of
Cnut, banished by Cnut, i. 426;
question of his connexion by mar
riage with Cnut, ib. ; probably sent
away as Viceroy in Norway, 427;
his death, ib.; probably Earl of the
East-Angles, ii. 557; and before that,
of Worcestershire, 563.
Half-King, title of Ethelstan of East-
Anglia, i. 622, ii. 664.
Hallam, Mr., his views as to the Churls,

i. 80; as to Commendation, 587.
Hamon, lord of Thorigny, surnamed

Dentatus, joins the rebellion against
William of Normandy, ii. 244; his
son, Robert Fitz-Hamon, conqueror
of Morganwg, ib.
Hampshire, invaded by the Danes in
1001, i. 306; men of, on Cnut's side
at Sherstone, 383; origin of the
name, 562.

Hanse Towns, title of their Senators, i.
102; their early commerce, 280.

Harold, supposed son of Cnut and of
Ælfgifu of Northampton, i. 478; his
supporters in Northumberland and
Mercia, ib.; despoils Elfgifu-Emma
of her treasures, ib.; claims the
Crown in opposition to Harthacnut,
478, 753; feeling in his favour
among the Danes and Northern Eng-
lish, 479; the contest for the throne
decided by a division of the King-
dom, 483; Harold reigns north of the
Thames, ib.; story of his forging a letter
from Emma to the Ethelings, 487;
probably seizes the Etheling Elfred
without Godwine's connivance, 496;
chosen King over all England, 499;
banishes Emma, ib.; his character,
500; alleged refusal of Archbishop
Æthelnoth to crown him, 500, 755;
his reconciliation with the party of
Godwine, 501; his death, 504; his
body disinterred and thrown into the
Thames by order of Harthacnut, 508;
afterwards brought up by a fisherman
and buried in the church of Saint
Clement Danes, 508, 509; Imperial
supremacy probably reserved to him,
Harold, second son of Godwine, lawful-
ness of his election as King, i. 106,
108; his first appearance, ii. 36; ap-
pointed Earl of the East-Angles, 37,
79; his character, 37-39, 41, 42, 44;
his military genius, 38; his champion-
ship of England against strangers, 40;
his foreign travels, ib.; his patronage
of Germans as opposed to Frenchmen,
41; his friendship with Saint Wulf-
stan, ib.; his foundation of the
College of Waltham, 41, 438, 439-445,
450, 670; his connexion with Ead-
gyth Swanneshals, 43; Earl Swegen's
lands divided between him and Beorn,
88; he opposes Swegen's restoration,
99; joins his father at Beverstone,
138; summoned before the King,
146; is outlawed, 148; determines
on resistance, 150; estimate of his
conduct, ib.; goes with Leofwine to
Bristol, 151; Bishop Ealdred sent
to overtake them, but fails, 152;
received by King Diarmid at Dublin,
ib.; growth of his power, 306; sails
with Leofwine from Dublin, and
enters the Bristol Channel, 313; re-
sisted by the men of Somersetshire
and Devonshire, 314; lands at Por-
lock, ib.; his victory, 316; plunders
the country and sails to join his
father, ib.; estimate of his conduct,


317; his meeting with Godwine, 320;
their landing at Southwark, 327; re-
stored to his Earldom, 333; succeeds
his father in the Earldom of the
West-Saxons, 355; joy of the nation
at his new promotion, ib.; character
of his government, ib.; difference
between his position and that of
Godwine, 358; compromise between
him and the King in regard to the
foreigners, 360; legends concerning
him and his brother Tostig, 378, 652-
656; sent against Elfgar and the
Welsh, 392; fortifies Hereford, 393;
Peace of Billingsley, 395; his co-
operation with Leofric and Ealdred,
400; his dealings with Bishop Her-
mann and the monks of Malmesbury,
405; suspected by Sir F. Palgrave
of the death of Eadward the Æthel-
ing, 413; Herefordshire added to
his Earldom, 417; his prospects of
the Crown, 420; questions as to his
position, and with reference to the
Crown, 421-428; his quasi-royal posi-
tion, 424-428, 663; his relations to
the Church, 429; his pilgrimage to
Rome, 430, 431-433, 665; studies
the politics of the French Princes,
430, 666; procures the pallium for
Stigand, 432; his return, 433; his
zeal for education, 441; his favour to
the secular clergy, 442; witness of the
Waltham foundation to his character,
443; dispute between him and Bishop
Gisa, 446, 674-680; his campaign
against Gruffydd, 466-473; adopts
the Welsh tactics, 469; ravages and
subdues all Wales, 470; builds a
hunting-seat at Portskewet, 475;
carries messages from the King to
the Northumbrian insurgents, 487;
charged by Tostig with stirring up the
revolt, 488; denies the charge on
oath, 489; hinders the King from
making war on the Northumbrians,
490; his position in regard to the
revolt, 491-494; English estimates
of his character, 536-538; Norman
calumnies, 539, 540; estimate of
Orderic, 539; of the Scandinavian
writers, 540-541; his alleged spolia-
tion of the churches of Hereford,
Exeter, and elsewhere, 547-548;
older than Tostig, 554; his relations
to the Earldoms of his brothers, 568;
story of illness, 585; versions
of his conduct at Porlock, 623,
624; growth of the legend of his
quarrel with Tostig, 652-654; its


probable origin, 654, 655; mixed up
with the accounts of his election as
King, 655, 656; evidence for his
Roman pilgrimage, 665; mistakes as
to his foundation at Waltham, 670;
real nature of his quarrel with Gisa,
674-677; his reconciliation with him,
676, 677; mythical versions, 677-679.
Harold Blaatand, King of the Danes,
his alleged relations with William
Longsword, i. 191; his later conver-
sion to Christianity, 215; his disin-
terested dealings with Normandy,
216; defeats Lewis at the Dive,
216, 217; renews the Laws of Rolf,
217; question as to his identity, 218;
his alleged second intervention, 233.
Harold, son of Swegen, succeeds his
father in mark, i. 364; his alleged
share in Cnut's invasion of England,
373, 684; bis death or deposition,

Harold Hardrada, son of Sigurd and
half-brother of Saint Olaf, his escape
from the battle of Stikkelstad, ii. 74,
75; passes into Russia, where he
forms a friendship with King Jaroslaf
of Novgorod, 75; betakes himself to
the Byzantine Court, ib.; receives
the command of the Warangian body-
guard, ib.; his exploits against the
Saracens in Sicily and in Africa, 76;
his Crusade or Pilgrimage, ib.; his
alleged suppression of disturbances
at Athens, 77, 578; his quarrel with
the Imperial Court, ib.; story of his
escape from Constantinople, 77, 78;
returns to Russia, 78; where he
marries Elizabeth, daughter of Jaros-
laf, ib.; passes into Sweden, ib.;
invades Denmark, in alliance with
Swegen Estrithson, ib.; joins Magnus
and receives a share of the Kingdom
of Norway, 90; succeeds Magnus,
92; question of the inscription found
at Peiraieus, 578-582.
Harold, husband of Gunhild, his signa

tures, i. 427; his murder, ii. 64;
probably Earl of the East-Angles,

Harold, son of Ralph the Timid, ii. 417,

Harold the Staller, ii. 662.
Harthacnut, son of Cnut and Emma,
succeeds his father in Denmark, i.
477; designated by Cnut as his suc-
cessor in England, ib. ; his claim sup-
ported by the West-Saxons, in oppo-
sition to that of Harold, 477, 479;
Godwine supports him in the Gemót

of Oxford, 482; division of the King-
dom, Harthacnut reigning in Wessex,
483; remains in Denmark, 484; de-
posed in Wessex, 498; prepares to
invade England, 504; passes the
winter with his mother in Flanders,
ib.; invasion rendered unnecessary
by the death of Harold, ib.; his agree-
ment with Magnus of Norway, 504,
ii. 73; unanimously chosen King, i.
505; lands at Sandwich, and crowned
at Canterbury by Archbishop Eadsige,
506; his character, ib.; his first Dane.
geld, 507; his treatment of the dead
body of Harold, 508; his second
Danegeld, 509; orders Worcester to
be burned and the shire ravaged, in
revenge for the murder of his House-
carls, 515, 516; recalls his half-
brother Eadward from Normandy,
518; sells the see of Durham to
Eadred, 522; his war with Magnus
of Norway, 523; his death at the
marriage-feast of Tofig the Proud, ib.
Hasting, his settlement at Chartres, i.
162; sells the county to Theobald,


Hastings, reckoned distinct from Sussex,
i. 347.

Heaca, Bishop of the South-Saxons, dies,
ii. 44.

Heath, Archbishop, his assertion of the
Imperial style of Elizabeth, i. 555.
Heinrici terra, Germany so called, i.

Helen, name applied to Herleva, ii. 611.
Helga, Cnut defeated at the, i. 450, 742.
Hengest and Horsa, question as to their

historical character, i. 10; legend of
Hengest's daughter, 18.
Hengestesdun, battle of, i. 42.
Henry the Second of England, character

of his reign, i. 5, 6; exacts the oath
of fealty from the Scots, 570.
Henry the Third of England, character
of his reign, i. 6; restrictions placed
on his authority, 595.
Henry the Sixth of England, his for-
feiture of the Crown, i. 595.
Henry the Eighth of England, his
Imperial style, i. 144, 554, 555.
Henry the Fowler, King of the East-
Franks, saluted Imperator, i. 142,553;
his election as King, 173, 202; his re-
lations with Charles the Simple, 174;
receives the homage of Herbert of
Vermandois, 196.

Henry the Second, Emperor, besieges
Valenciennes, i. 45; his canonization,


Henry the Third, Emperor, marries
Gunhild daughter of Cnut, i. 451;
sends ambassadors to Eadward the
Confessor on the occasion of that
monarch's coronation, ii. 17; his no-
mination of Popes, 96; English em-
bassy to him for the return of the
Ætheling Eadward, 371; his splendid
reception of the ambassadors, 372;
his death, 409; his war against
Godfrey and Baldwin, 594.
Henry the Sixth, Emperor, homage
rendered to him by Richard of Eng-
land, i. 120; his conquest of Sicily,
Henry, King of the French, receives
the Duchy of Burgundy, i. 466 ; suc-
ceeds Robert in the Kingdom, ib.;
expelled and restored by Duke Robert,
ib.; his ingratitude to William, ii. 201;
invades Normandy and besieges Til-
lières, ib.; restores the fortress, con-
trary to his engagement, 203; aids
William against the Norman rebels,
248; his personal exertions in the
battle of Val-ès-dunes. 256, 257; his
wars with Odo of Chartres, 275; de-
prives Theobald of Chartres of the
city of Tours, which he bestows on
Geoffrey of Anjou, ib.; his wars with
Geoffrey of Anjou, 277.
Henry the Fourth


France, crowned
at Chartres, i. 240; his change of the
royal style, 585.
Henry of Huntingdon, his account of
the formation of the English King-
doms, i. 25, 580; character of his
history, 258; his view of William's
right to the Crown, 301; fragments
of ballads preserved by him, 389;
his use of the words "Saxon and
"English," 532, 540; his account of
the deposition of Sigeberht, 591, 594;
his account of William's speech at
Senlac, 611; of Ethelred's invasion
of Cumberland, 633; of the massacre
of Saint Brice, 637; of Eadric, 641;
his rendering of the word Child, 649;
of the kingship of Swegen, 663;
of the conference of Cnut and Ead-
mund, 689, 691; of the death of
Eadmund, 696; of the death of
Eadric, 720; of the exploits of God-
wine in Denmark, 723; of the death
of the Etheling Ælfred, 762; of the
character of Harold, ii. 539; of the
death of Godwine, 639; of the sup
posed enmity between Tostig aud
Harold, 653.

Heptarchy; an exploded notion, i. 22.

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Herbert, Count of Vermandois, im-
prisons Charles the Simple, i. 174;
releases him, 175; suspected of his
murder, 181; his Carolingian descent,
ib; his policy, 194; does homage to
Henry the Fowler, 196; his fortress
at Laôn, 200; besieges Rheims and
forces his son into the Archbishoprick,
204; besieges Laôn, ib.; does homage
to Otto, ib.; dies, 207.
Here, meaning of the word, i. 356.
Hereford, defeat of Earl Ralph near, by
Gruffydd and Elfgar, ii. 388; the
city sacked and burnt, 390; its con-
nexion with the story of Æthelberht of
East-Anglia, ib.; rebuilt and fortified
by Harold, 394; see of, held by Eald-
red along with that of Worcester,
398; Harold's alleged spoliation of
the church of, 547-548.
Herefordshire, Earldom of, held by Har-

old, ii. 394, 417, 548, 562; by Ranig,
561; by Swegen, ib.; by Ralph, 562.
Heregyld, or war-tax, for the main-
tenance of a fleet, remitted, ii. 121;
import of the remission, 123, 598.
Heretoga, title of, i. 70, 74, 624; its
use in the Chronicles and Charters,
ib.; equivalent to Ealdorman, 580,
581; to Consul, 581.

Heriots in use in England before the
Conquest, i. 92.

Herleva, or Arlette, mother of William
the Conqueror, story of her connexion
with Duke Robert of Normandy,
ii. 177; advancement of her family,
ib.; her marriage with Herlwin of
Conteville, ib.
Herleva, wife of Archbishop Robert of
Rouen, ii. 179.


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Hiesmes, County of, held by Robert of
his brother Duke Richard, i. 463.
Highlanders, their military habits com-
pared with those of the English, i. 385.
Hildebrand procures the election of
Nicolas the Second, ii. 431.
Hláf-atas, loaf-eaters, a form of the
Comitatus, i. 118.

Hlaford, Lord, origin and meaning of the
title, i. 85, 582; relation of, to the
man, 90, 91; influence of the King
as hlaford, 115; process of choosing
by the man, 118, 119, 587, 588; title
borne by Ethelred of Mercia, 564,582.
Hlafdige, Lady, origin of the title, i.
85; title of the West-Saxon King's
wife, 565, 583; applied to Æthelflæd
of Mercia, ib.
Homage, origin of the name, i. 90.
Homer, English institutions and tactics
illustrated by, i. 73, 79, 80, 86, 271,
318, 620, 723, ii. 12, 332.
Homo. See Man.
Housecarls, or Thingmen, paid military
force, organized by Cnut, i. 416,
440; formed a military guild with
the King at their head, 441; the
institution continued by later Kings,
442; the Housecarls of Harthacnut
remain with Emma, 484; employed
by Harthacnut to levy the Danegeld,
513; two of them killed at Worcester,
514; mention of, in the Chronicles,
charters, &c., 733, 737; the force com-
posed of men of all nations, 734;
laws for the government of, 734, 735;
their behaviour to the mass of the
people, 735; legislation of the Witan
regarding them, 736.

Hubert of Rye receives Duke William

on his flight from Valognes, ii. 247;
attends him to Falaise, ib.
Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury, his

doctrine of elective monarchy, i. 597.
Hugh the Great, Duke of the French,
succeeds Robert, i. 174; refuses the
Crown, 174,615; his war with Rolf,174;
his dealings with Charles the Simple,
181; marries Eadhild of England,
183; his character and policy, 194,195;

Herlwin of Conteville, marri's Herleva,
mother of William, ii. 177.
Herlwin, founder of the Abbey of Bec,

ii. 214; his descent, ib.; early life,
215; his virtues, ib.; contemplates
monastic retirement, 216; begins his
foundation on his own estate of
Burneville, near Brionne, 217; be-
comes Priest and Abbot, ib.; re-
moves the monastery to Bec, 218;
his government as Abbot, 219; his
death, 220.
Hermann of Lotharingia, succeeds Briht-
wold as Bishop of the Wilsætas, ii.
79; accompanies Ealdred to Rome,
to obtain a dispensation for Eadward,
113-117; his attempt to obtain the
Abbey of Malmesbury, 401; defeated
by Harold, 404, 577; becomes a monk
at Saint Omer, 405; returns to Eng-
3 A


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