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Æthelberht with his daughter, i.
Charles Constantine, King of Bur-
gundy, early case of a double
Christian name, i. 229; does homage
to Lewis, ib.; his descent, ib.
Charles, son of Lewis From-beyond-Sea,
accepts Lotharingia from the Empire,
i. 239; fails to succeed his nephew
Lewis, ib.; his wars with Hugh
Capet and captivity, 240.
Charles the Bald, King of the West-
Franks, extent of his Kingdom in
Gaul, i. 154; grants Paris to Robert
the Strong, 156; Ethelwulf marries
his daughter, 303; becomes Emperor,
Charles the Fat, Emperor, his reign and
deposition, i. 155.
Charles the First, his writs of ship-
money compared with those of Æthel-
red, i. 338, 339; not deposed, 595.
Charles the Great, his relations with
England, i. 38, 117, 559; compared
with Ecgberht, 39; with Alfred, 50,
51; the first Teutonic Emperor, 136;
his influence on the career of Ecg-
berht, 139, 140; extent of his domi-
nions, 141; their division, 154, 475,
496; addressed as Imperator and
Basileus by Byzantine ambassadors,
553; his Breton campaign, 559; his
dealings with the Scots and Northum-
brians, 559, 560; his dispute and cor-
respondence with Offa, 560; his in-
fluence in England exaggerated by
John of Wallingford, 561; titles borne
by his sons, 585.
Charters, Old-English, contents of, i.
98; their style in Latin and English,
134; characteristics of spurious char-
Chartres, settlement of Hasting at, i.
162; Rolf's defeat at, 165; sold to
Theobald, 232; Henry the Fourth
crowned at, 240; succession of the
Counts of, 618, 621.
Cheshire, ravaged by Norwegians, i.
263; part of the Earldom of Eadwine,
Chester, special franchises of its Pala-
tinate, i. 292; Earls of, ii. 205.
Chester-le-Street. See Cunegaceaster.
Childeric, King of the Franks, his de-
position, i. 596.
Cholsey, burned by the Danes, i. 329.
Christianity, its first preaching to the
English, i. 28; its Roman and Scot-
tish preachers, ib.; its peaceful pro-
gress, ib.; preached by Englishmen
on the Continent, 29; its political re-
sults, 29, 30; practical effect of, on
the conduct of war, 32; its pro-
gress in Norway under Saint Ólaf,
Chrodegang of Metz, his model rule
for secular Canons introduced by
Leofric at Exeter, ii. 84; by Gisa
at Wells, 450.
Chronicles, English, their distinctive
origin and character, i. 398, ii. 428,
599, 625; nomenclature of the differ-
ent versions, i. 399; their capricious
mention of Scottish affairs, 570.
Church and State, their close identi-
fication before the Norman Conquest,
i. 366, 367, ii. 338.
Cild or Child, title given to Wulfnoth
of Sussex, i. 649.
Cirencester, Gemót of, i. 421, 628;
Godwine's promotion at, 422.
Cities, their importance in the sixth
century, i. 327.
Clair-on-Epte, Peace of, compared with
that of Wedmore, i. 165.
Clement Danes, Saint, church of, place
of burial of Harold son of Cnut,
i. 765; legend of its foundation,
Clientela, designation applied by Saxo
to the Housecarls, i. 734.
Cnut, son of Swegen, nature of his
election, i. 108; his first appearance
in England, 335; relation of his
conquest to those of Swegen and
William, 361, ii. 170; his reverence
for Saint Eadmund, i. 363; elected
King by the Danish fleet, 365, 673;
outlawed by the English Witan. 366;
import of their vote, ib.; receives
the submission of Lindesey, but is
driven out by Æthelred, 368; muti-
lates his hostages and returns to
Denmark, 368-369; account of his
baptism, 373, 76; returns to Eng-
land, ravages Wessex, and receives
its submission, 374; invades Mercia
in company with Eadric, 375; re-
ceives the submission of Northum-
berland and allows the murder of
Uhtred, 376; sails against London,
378; elected King by the English
Witan at Southampton, 378-379,
673-674; thrice besieges London in
vain, 381-385; his battles with Ead-
mund, 382-392; his military skill at
Assandun, 388; legend of his robbery
of the Ely relics, 392; his conference
with Eadmund and division of the
Kingdom, 393-395, 688-692; sus-
pected of a share in Eadmund's mur-
der, 395-396, 697-698; character of
his reign, 399-400; true form of his
name, 399; his claims after the death
of Eadmund; his final election, 401-
402, 677, 691-693; his coronation,
403, 675, 677; his preference for
England and Wessex, 403-404, 479,
his fourfold division of England,
405; his promotion of Godwine, 405-
407; marries Emma; his probable
motives, 407-409, 715-716; his con-
nexion with Elfgifu of Northampton;
birth of Swegen and Harold, 408,
409, 713-715; his banishments and
executions, 409-413, 699-701; his
policy with regard to the English
nobility, 412; described by Thietmar
as the defender of England, 415;
levies a Danegeld and dismisses most
of his fleet, 415-416; renews Ead-
gar's Law, 416; contrast between
him and the Norman Kings, 418-
419; visits Denmark,419-421; founds
the church on Assandun, 423-424;
his treatment of Danes and English-
men, 425-429; his later character
and position, 429-430; his pilgri
mage and letter from Rome, 430-
431, 729-731; his laws, 431-433,
731-732; question of his alleged
hunting-code, 433, 732; personal tra-
ditions of him; his devotion and good-
humour, 433-434; his ecclesiastical
policy and foundations, 434-438; his
visit to Glastonbury, 436-437; his
promotion of Englishmen in Denmark,
438; unparalleled internal peace of
his reign, 439; he establishes the
Housecarls; his military legislation,
440-442,733-735 ; invades Scotland;
submission of Duncan and Macbeth,
445-446, 741; his policy in the
North, his war with Saint Olaf, his de-
feat at the Helga and final election
in Norway, 448-450, 742-743; his
friendship and alliance with the
Emperor Conrad, 451, 744; recovers
the frontier of the Eyder, 451-452;
his friendship with William of Aqui-
taine, 452; peace between him and
Richard the Good, 463; accounts of
his relations with Robert, 467; re-
fuses to surrender his Crown to the
Æthelings, 469, 750; his views as
to the succession, 471-473. 475-477;
Norman version of them, ib.; dies at
Shaftesbury and is buried at Win-
chester, 474; his division of his Em-
pire, 475, 751-752; his use of terri-
torial titles, 585, 586; chosen three
times, 673; chosen over the head of
his elder brother, 675; his Christian
name said to be Lambert, 676; le-
gendary and foreign accounts of his
war with Eadmund, 682-688; legend
of his single combat with Eadmund,
688-690; story of his ordering the
murder of the outlawed Eadwig, 700;
story of his execution or murder of
Ulf, 728-729, 749; character given
of him by John of Wallingford, 732-
733; accounts of his relations with
Scotland, 739; account of him by
Rudolf Glaber, 741; enumeration of
his kingdoms, 743-744; legendary
accounts of his death, 749-750.
Cnut's Law, renewed by Harold at Ox-
ford, ii. 495.
Cnut, Saint, his canonization, i. 399.
Codes, barbaric, their bearing on Eng-
lish law, i. 73.
Collinson, Mr., on the quarrel between
Harold and Gisa, ii. 678.
Comes and Dux, force of the words, i.
Comitatus, origin of, i. 85; analogies
among the Homeric Greeks, 86; con-
trast with the republican Greeks and
Romans, ib.; growth of the institution,
89, 588; one element in feudalism,
91; the relation unaffected by great-
ness or smallness of scale, 118, 119;
illustrations of, at the battle of Maldon,
269; at the murder of Sigeferth, 371;
revival of its earliest form in the
Commendati Homines in Domesday, i.
Commendation, meaning of, i, 75; origin
of the name and growth of the insti-
tution, 89; nature of, 118, 119, 587;
its application to sovereign princes,
119, 588; its nature in the case of
Scotland and Strathclyde, 120, 565-
571; its original idea dies out, 121-
125; delicate nature of the relation,
131; its analogy with colonial rela-
tions, ib.; commendation of Scotland,
renounced in 1328, 144; growth of
the practice in France, 253; com-
mendation of the Scots to Charles
the Great, 560; distinguished from
feudal holding, 587.
Commune, use of the word, i. 256.
Community, the Teutonic, its elements,
i. 79; retained in the democratic
Cantons of Switzerland, 81, 82, 95;
nature of landed property in, 83;
gives way to the Comitatus or Thegn-
hood, 84, 85, 95; effects of the change,
Compiègne, part of the royal domain
under the later Karlings, i. 193; re-
tained by Lewis after the loss of
Compton, bequest of the lands of, i.
Compurgation, legal value of, i. 508.
Congresbury, dispute of Harold and Gisa
as to the lordship of, ii. 676.
Conquest, the English, credibility of the
narrative, i. 9; its course not affected
by possible earlier Teutonic settle-
ments, 10-12; its course to the end
of the sixth century, 13, 15; con-
trasted with other Teutonic conquests,
15, 21, 136; its gradual character,
19; causes and results of the dif-
Conquest, the Norman, its importance
as the turning-point in English his-
tory, i. I; the earlier English history
necessary to its right understanding,
2; its character as compared with
earlier and later conquests, 3-4;
nature of the changes produced by
it, 4-5, 69, 145, 146; the Old-Eng-
lish constitution not destroyed by it,
69, 144, 145; its effects on the cha-
racter of the monarchy, 70, 145, 146;
its causes begin with the marriage of
Emma, 301; compared with the
Danish conquest, 360-362.
Conquæstor, title applied to Williaın, ii.
Conrad, King of Burgundy, joins Otto
and Lewis in the invasion of the
Duchy of France, i. 225; his titles,
Conrad of Franconia, elected King of
the Eastern Franks, i. 173.
Conrad, Emperor, his meeting with
Cnut at Rome, i. 430; their friend-
ship, 451; restores the Mark of Sles-
wick to Cnut, ib.
Constance, wife of Robert King of the
French, her character and influence,
i. 453, 454; seeks to raise her third
son Richard to the Kingdom, 466.
Constantine, Emperor or Tyrant in
Britain and Gaul, i. 132, 138, 139,
Constantine, King of Scots, defeated at
Brunanburh, i. 60; his alleged con-
Constantine Palaiologos, comparison of
Harold with, ii. 44.
Constantinople, intercourse of English-
men with, i. 30; defended by Eng-
lish axemen, 512, ii. 44; exploits of
Harold Hardrada at, ii. 75.
Constitutional states compared with
despotisms, i. 295.
Consul, use of the title, i. 581; applied
to Wulfric Spot, 656.
Conybeare, Mr., his version of the Song
of Maldon, i. 268, 272.
Cookham, the sons of Elf helm blinded
at, i. 325.
Copsige, deputy Earl in Northumber-
land, ii. 480; question as to his title
and forms of his name, ib.
Cornwall, remains British, i. 14; its
Bishoprick at Bodmin, 309.
Coronation, importance of the rite, ii. 6.
Coronation Service, use of national
names in, i. 541.
Coventry, Abbey of, special object of
Leofric's bounty, ii. 48; legend of
Crediton, episcopal city of Devonshire,
i. 309; the see removed to Exeter
by Bishop Leofric, ii. 83.
Cricklade, Cnut and Eadric cross the
Thames at, i. 375.
Crida, first King of the Mercians, i. 26.
Cromwell, Oliver, treatment of his body
compared with that of Harold Hare-
foot, i. 508.
Crown, English, why called Imperial,
Crusades, compared with the "Truce
of God," ii. 234.
Cumberland, different meanings of the
name, i. 123, 124; strictly a fief of
England, 125; gradually divided be-
tween England and Scotland, ib.;
ravaged by Ethelred, 130, 633;
grant of, as a fief to Malcolm King
of Scots, 571-573; attendance of its
princes in the Witenagemót, 593-
Cunegaceaster, or Chester-le-Street,
Bishoprick of Bernicia removed to,
Curagulus, title of English Kings, i.
Cuthberht, Saint, Bishop of Lindisfarn,
i. 290; removal of his body, ib.
Cuthred, delivers Wessex from Mercia,
Cwen, see Queen.
Cwichelmeshlaw, Scirgemót at, i. 329;
prophecy about it, ib.; climbed by
the Danes, ib.
Cyn, words cognate with, i. 583.
Cyne-hlaford, force of the name, i. 115.
Cynewulf, King of the West-Saxons, i.
Cyning, origin of the name, i. 77; its
cognate words, 583; false etymologies
proposed for, 583, 584; analogous
Cynesige, Archbishop of York, conse-
crates Harold's minster at Waltham,
ii. 444; his death, 445; his appoint-
ment to his see, 633.
Cynric, his victory over the Welsh at
Salisbury, i. 319.
Danegeld, origin of, i. 109, 598, ii.
122; paid in Gaul, i. 175; not due
in Cumberland, 299; levied by Cnut,
415; Harthacnut's first and second
Danegeld, 507, 509; levied by the
Housecarls at Worcester, 513-516;
distinction between it and Heregyld,
ii. 122, 598-599.
Danes, their invasions and conquests
compared with those of the English,
i. 12; beginning of their invasions,
42; three distinct periods of, 43, 44,
266, 361; they give new names to
places in England, 48, 562; growth of
Wessex aided by their settlements,
54; their later wars with Ælfred, 54,
55; effects of their invasions, 140;
become Englishmen in England, 148–
150; and become Frenchmen in Gaul,
149; comparison of their invasions in
Gaul and Britain, 158, 161, 162;
their ravages in Germany and Italy,
160, 269; renewal of their ravages
in England under Æthelred, 265,
266; to be distinguished from Nor-
wegians, 268; first bought off by
Ethelred, 275; provision for so doing
in the will of Eadred, ib.; sheltered
in the Norman ports, 283, 298; re-
newal of their ravages in 957, 293;
occupy Wight and besiege Rochester,
294; take service in England, 306;
invade Sussex and Hampshire, ib.;
vainly attack Exeter, 309; defeat the
men of Somersetshire and Devonshire
at Penhow, 310; bought off again,
311; killed in the massacre of Saint
Brice, 312, 314; their invasions in
1006, 328; plunder the inland parts
of Wessex in the winter, 328-330;
again receive tribute, 330; their in-
vasions renewed under Thurkill, 342;
extent of their ravages, 342, 3+7;
bought off again, 348-353; capture
Canterbury, 350; their trade with
Southern Europe, 351, 352; their
progress in the arts; splendour of
their ships, 355, 373; their conquest
compared with that of William, 360-
362; they winter in London in 1016,
395; their position under Eadgar,
418; make way for Englishmen, 425,
427, 428; their position in England,
430; no preference over English-
men shown them in the Laws of Cnut,
432; their settlement in London, 481;
their alleged insolence under Hartha-
cnut, 513; sons of, bear English
names, 515; their assimilation with
the English, 538; their influence and
that of the Normans compared, ii.
Danish Kings in England, i. 398; au-
thorities for the period, ib. ; connexion
between Danish and Norman Con-
Danish language, dies out in Normandy,
i. 180, 607; its relation to Low-
Danish marriage, i. 175, 612-614.
Dannewerk, made by Gorm and Thyra,
Dante, his use of the words monarchus
and monarchia, i. 552.
Deerhurst, history of its monastery and
church, i. 351.
Deira, ravaged by the Danes, i. 281;
united with Bernicia under Uhtred,
Denalagu, origin and extent of, i. 47;
compared with the Danish settlements
in Gaul, 162, 169; position of its
inhabitants under Cnut, 432.
Denmark, formation of the Kingdom of,
i. 44, 215; its commendation to the
Empire, 119; Cnut sends his fleet
back to, 416; Cnut's visit to, 419;
Thurkill made Viceroy of, 426;
Cnut's promotion of English Bishops
in, 438; submits to Maguus of Nor-
way on the death of Harthacnut, ii.
Dependencies, growth of the English
system of, i. 144, 145.
Deposition of the King, power of,
vested in the Witan, i. 105, 593;
instances of, 105, 593–595; definition
of deposition, 595; instances of, in
other countries, 596.
Derby, name given by the Danes, i. 48.
Deville, M., on the birth of William,
ii. 611, 613.
Devonshire, wholly British at the end
of the sixth century, i. 14; partly
English under Ecgberht, 41; its
Bishoprick at Crediton, 309; ravaged
by the Danes on their retreat from
Exeter, 310; Bishoprick of, removed
to Exeter, ii. 83.
Diarmid, King of Dublin and Leinster,
receives Harold and Leofwine, ii.
Diocletian, accepts Carausius as a col-
league, i. 138.
Dive, river, original western frontier of
Normandy, i. 169; Harold Blaatand
defeats Lewis at, 216.
Domesday Book, charges against Harold
based on, ii. 547.
Domfront, origin of its fortress, ii. 278;
besieged by William of Normandy,
280; relieved by Geoffrey, 281; sur-
renders to William, 286.
Donald of Cumberland, subdued by
Eadmund, i. 124; his sons blinded,
Dorchester, extent of the diocese, i.
Dover, outrages of Eustace of Boulogne
at, i. 515, ii. 130; successful resistance
of the burghers, ii. 131; men of Dover
accused to the King, ib.; comparison
between the cases of Worcester under
Harthacnut and Dover under Ead-
ward, 133; Eadward commands God-
wine to inflict military chastisement
on the town, 132; Godwine refuses,
Dragon, the West-Saxon ensign, i. 386.
Dreux, ceded to Odo of Chartres, i. 457.
Driving out, force of the words, i. 499.
Drogo of Mantes, marries Godgifu
daughter of Ethelred, i. 519, ii. 129.
Ducatus, use of the word by Bæda, i.
543; in Ecgberht's charters, 544.
Dudo, Dean of Saint Quentin, character
of his history, i. 147; specimens of
his exaggerations, 184; his feelings
towards England, 185; his account
of commendation, 588; his witness
as to language, 607, 608; on the
relations between Normandy and
France, 609; on the homage of Rolf,
ib.; on the death of William Long-
Duduc, Bishop of Somersetshire, in-
stance of the promotion of German
Prelates to English sees, ii. 79; his
death and bequests to his see, 446,
447, 674, 675.
Duncan, grandson of Malcolm King of
Scots, holds the under-kingdom of
Cumberland or Strathclyde, i. 445;
his alleged refusal to do homage to
Cnut, 445, 739, 740; besieges Dur-
ham and is defeated, 502, 503; mar-
ries a kinswoman of Siward, ii.
54; his unsuccessful warfare with
Orkney, b; murdered by Macbeth, ib.
Dunnere, the churl, his exploits at
Maldon, i. 273.
Dunsætas, force of the word, ii. 685.
Dunstan, his policy, ecclesiastical and
civil, i. 63, 65; determines the election
of Eadward the Martyr, 264, 6:6; his
death, 275; observance of his festival,
Durham, church and city of, founded by
Ealdhun, i. 291; greatness of the
Bishoprick owing to its position, 291,
292; its peculiar franchises, 293; be-
sieged by Malcolm and rescued by
Uhtred, 326; Eadmund, Bishop of,
445-502; besieged by Duncan, 502;
repulse of the Scots, 503; completion
of the minster, ib.
Dux Anglorum, title of Harold, i. 563,
662, ii. 664.
Dux and Comes, distinction between the
words, i. 405, 719.
Dyrrhachion, Alexios defeated by the
Normans at, i. 151, 133.
Eadbald, King of Kent, his incestuous
marriage, i. 558.
Eadgar, Under-king of Mercia, i. 62;
chosen King of Mercia in his own
right, 63, 595; succeeds, on the death
of Eadwig, to the whole Kingdom, 64;
his peaceful and vigorous govern-
ment, b.; his effective supremacy
over all Britain, ib.; he encourages
intercourse with foreign countries, 65;
sanctions the schemes of Dunstan, ib.;
untruthful stories of his private life,
ib.; his meeting with the six Kings
at Chester, ib.; constitutional aspect
of his election, 107; his tomb at
Glastonbury, 396; his memory ac
ceptable both to the glish and to
the Danes, 417; renewal of “Ead-
gar's Law, 416, 417; Cnut's alleged
opinion of him, 434; his titles, 550;
his coronation at Bath, 626; his
alleged penance, ib.
Eadgar, son of Eadward the Ætheling,
his possible claims on the Crown, ii.
Eadgifu, daughter of Eadward the Elder,
and wife of Charles the Simple, seeks
shelter in England, i. 183; joins her
son Lewis at Laôn, 199; elopes with
Herbert of Vermandois, 408.
Eadgifu, Abbess of Leominster, seduced
by Earl Swegen, ii. 89, 592, 593-