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AACHEN, great Council at, i. 226;
Lothar's raid against, 236; Bald-
win reconciled to Henry the Third
at, ii. 594.
Abernethy, submission of Malcolm to
William at, i. 446.

Abbots, method of appointing, ii. 571-

Abingdon, Abbey of, favoured by
Harold, ii. 43.
Abingdon Chronicle, its character, i.

399; its notices of the sacrilege of
Harold, ii. 543; of the return of
Godwine, 624; of the ecclesiastical
position of Stigand, 633; of the re-
volt of Northumberland, 689, 690.
Achaia, Federal Assembly of, compared
with the English Witenagemót, i.
100; office of the General in, 114.
Adalbero, Archbishop of Rheims, his
dispute with Lewis the Fifth,
his doctrine of elective monarchy,
239, 597; betrays Charles of Lothar-
ingia to Hugh Capet, 240.
Adam of Bremen, his account of the
sons of Eadmund, i. 410, ii. 649;
of Saint Olaf, i. 448; of Swegen Es-
trithson's claim to the throne, 519,
520; of the sanctity of Eadward,
522; his use of the word Nortmannia,
605; his account of the marriage of
Godwine, 723; of Cnut's pilgrimage,
730; of the marriage of Gunhild, 745;
of the cession of Sleswick, 746; of
Cnut's relations with Normandy, 748;
of the sons of Godwine, ii. 541.
Adelaide, sister of William, her mar-
riage and children, ii. 614.
Adelaide, niece of William, ii. 614.
Adelhard of Luttich, childmaster of
Harold's College at Waltham, ii. 441.

Adeliza, daughter of Richard the Good,
marries Reginald of Burgundy, i.
460, ii. 179.

Ademar, Aquitanian Chronicler, his
account of Cnut, i. 452, 676; of
Roger of Toesny, 461.

Eddi, his use of the word Saxon, i.

Elfgar, son of Elfric of Hampshire,
blinded by Ethelred, i. 278.

Elfgar, son of Meaw, Ealdorman, on
Cnut's side at Sherstone, i. 383.
Ælfgar, son of Leofric, receives Harold's
Earldom of East-Anglia, ii. 159; re-
signs it in favour of Harold, 337;
resumes it on Harold's translation
to Wessex, 356; character of him
and his sons, ib.; banished on a
charge of treason, 384; hires ships
in Ireland, 386; makes an alliance
with Gruffydd of North Wales, ib.;
ravages Herefordshire with Gruf-
fydd, 387; sacks and burns Here-
ford, 390; sues for peace, 395; is
restored to his Earldom, 396; suc-
ceeds Leofric in Mercia, 416; his al-
leged second outlawry and return,
434; his benefactions to the Abbey of
Rheims, 456, 553; recommends Wulf-
stan for the Bishoprick of Worcester,
465; his death, ib.; his connexion
with Oxford and Oxfordshire, 567.
Ælfgar, alleged son of Godwine, ii. 553.
Elfgifu, first wife of Ethelred, ques-

tion as to her birth, i. 671, 672.
Elfgifu, daughter of Ethelred, marries

Uhtred, i. 327, 671.

Elfgifu of Northampton, relations of
Cnut with, i. 408, 559, 713-715; her
regency in Norway, 476.
Elfgifu, daughter of Earl Godwine, ii.
36, 554.

Ælfgitu, wife of Earl Ælfgar, ii. 658.

Elfgifu-Emma. See Emma.
Elfheah, Saint, Bishop of Winchester,
negotiates with Olaf Tryggvesson,
and confirms him, i. 288; becomes
Archbishop of Canterbury, 325;
sketch of his life, 351; captured by
the Danes, ib.; his martyrdom, 352;
question of his right to the title of
martyr, ib.; buried in London, ib. ;
translation of his body, 437; con-
founded with Dunstan, 658; Thiet-
mar's account of his martyrdom, 661–

Elfhelm, Earl of Deira, murdered by

Eadric, i. 325; his signatures, 645.
Ælfhere, Ealdorman of the Mercians,

heads the movement against the
monks, i. 261, 621; falsely charged
with the murder of Eadward, 265;
his death, 266; his alleged kindred
with Eadgar, 621; his signatures to
charters, 621, 622.

Elfhun, Bishop of London, buries
Ælfheah, i. 352; accompanies the
Æthelings to Normandy, 359.
Elfmær, Bishop of the South-Saxons,
his signatures, i. 661.

Ælfmær, Faldorman, surnamed Darling,
on Cnut's side at Sherstone, i. 383.
Elfmær, Abbot of Saint Augustine's, i.
660; whether the same Elfmar who
betrayed Canterbury to the Danes,
660-661; retains his Abbey, and is
afterwards raised to the Bishoprick
of Dorsetshire, 661; his signatures to
charters, ib.; distinguished from Ælf-
mær, Bishop of the South-Saxons, ib.
Elfmær, Archdeacon, betrays Canter-

bury to the Danes, i. 350.
Elfred, use of the name abroad, i. 747.
Elfred, King, his accession, i. 45; his
wars with the Danes, 46; terms of
peace with Guthrum, ib.; his cha-
racter, 48-52; legendary accounts of,
49; his laws, 51, 546; his successors,
52; extent of his dominions, 52, 53;
his later wars, 54, 55; founds the Eng-
lish Navy, 55; constitutional aspect
of his election, 106, 107; his relations
to his Witan, 114; his fortification
of London, 279; his loss and capture
of Exeter, 308.

Ælfred, son of Æthelred, his birth, i.
304; sent over to Normandy, 359;
Snorro's story of his attempt on Eng-
land after Eadmund's death, 401;
efforts of Robert of Normandy in his
behalf, 466, 469; conflicting versions
of the story of his invasion of Eng-
land and of his murder, 486-489,

756-764; probably seized by Harold
without Godwine's connivance, 496;
his position analogous to that of the
Stewart pretenders, 499; question
of Godwine's share in his murder,
510, 766.

Alfred the Giant, i. 465, 747; his sig-

natures to charters, 748.

Elfric, son of Elfhere, Ealdorman of
the Mercians, his banishment, i. 266,

Elfric, Ealdorman of Hampshire, ques-
tion as to his identity, i. 276, 627;
counsels payment to the Danes, 276;
commands the fleet, 277; his treason,
278; restored to favour, ib.; his
further treason in Wiltshire, 316.
Ælfric, Ealdorman, killed at Assandun,
i. 390, 627.

Alfric, Bishop of Wiltshire, commards
the fleet in 992, i. 227, 391; elected
Archbishop of Canterbury by the
Witan, 289, 290; said to have driven
out secular priests, 289; his theo-
logical writings, 290; grant of Æthel-
red to, 311; dies, 325; bequests of
ships in his will, 337, 391.
Elfric, Archbishop of York, accuses
Godwine and Lyfing of the death
of Elfred, i. 509; holds the see of
Worcester, ib.; the citizens of Wor-
cester refuse to receive him, 515;
said to have counselled Harthacnut's
punishment of the city, ib.; present
at the disinterment of the body of
Harold the First, 765.
Elfric, monk of Christ Church, elected
as successor to Archbishop Eadsige, ii.
117; rejected by Eadward, 118.
Elfric, brother of Earl Odda, ii. 565.
Elfsige, Bishop of Winchester, dies on
the way to Rome, i. 306.
Elfsige, Abbot of Peterborough, ac-
companies Emma to Normandy, i.

Elfsige of Somersetshire, his dispute
with Gisa, ii. 675.

Ælfthryth, second wife of Eadgar and
mother of Ethelred, i. 262; her con
nexion with the monastic party, 263;
her probable share in Eadward's
murder, 265; her death, 311; her
care of her grandsons, 672.
Elfweard, Bishop of London, his em-
bassy to Harthacnut at Bruges, i.
506; his administration at Evesham,
ib.; his sickness, ii. 68; returns to
his Abbey of Evesham, but is refused
admission, ib.; dies at Ramsey, ib.
Elfwig, brother of Earl Godwine, ap-


pointed Abbot of New Minster, ii.
464, 681, 682.

Elfwig, Abbot of Bath, ii. 673.
Elfwine, son of Elfric, his exploits at
Maldon, i. 272; question as to his
identity, ib.
Elfwine, Abbot of Ramsey, present at
the Synod of Rheims, ii. 111; accom-
panies Ealdred as ambassador to the
Emperor Henry, 371, 649.
Elfwine, Bishop of Winchester, dies,
ii. 93; succeeded by Stigand, ib.;
legend of him and the Lady Emma,

Elfwold, Bishop of Sherborne, charter
of his cited, ii. 564.

Elle of Sussex, his position as Bret-
walda, i. 545.


Escwig, Bishop of Dorchester,
mands the fleet in the year 992, i.
Æthelbald, King of the Mercians, his
conquests, i. 37; extent of his do-
minions, 546.
Æthelbald, King of the West-Saxons,
his incestuous marriage, i. 558.
Æthelberht, King of Kent, his position

as Bretwalda, and conversion, i 28,
29; his foreign marriage, 30, 558;
its effects, 303; called Rex Anglorum,
530; his power beyond the limits of
Kent, 544; his coinage, 546; his
dominion bounded by the Humber,
ib.; constitutional language of his
laws, 591.
Æthelberht, King of the East-Angles,
murdered by Offa, ii. 390; his min-
ster at Hereford, ib.
Æthelfled, daughter of Ælfred and wife

of Ethelred, her victories over the
Danes, i. 56; her position in Mercia,
563-565; her titles, 565.
Æthelflæd, wife of King Eadmund,

question as to her will, i. 623.
Ethelflæd, first wife of Eadgar and
mother of Eadward the Martyr, i.

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heads the submission to Swegen, i.
Æthelnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury,
his baptism or confirmation of Cnut,
i. 379; succeeds Archbishop Lyfing,
423; his influence over Cnut, 434;
accompanies Cnut in his visit to
Glastonbury, 436; his rumoured re-
fusal to crown Harold, son of Cnut,
483, 755; his death, 501; succeeded
by Eadsige, ib.
Æthelnoth, Abbot of Glastonbury, his

character for extravagance, ii. 360.
Æthelnoth, Biographer of Saint Cnut,
i. 399.
Æthelred, King of the Northumbrians,
his election and expulsion, i. 594.
Æthelred, Ealdorman of the Mercians,
son-in-law of Ælfred, i. 53, 56; his
position and titles, 76, 563-565.
Ethelred the First, his wars with the

Danes, and death, i. 45.
Æthelred the Second, son of Eadgar,
character of his reign, i. 66, 258,
260; deposition and restoration of,
105; effects of his personal character,
113, 297; his treatment of Cumber-
land, 130, 298, 348; his dispute
with Richard the Fearless, 253, 283,
630; abundance of his laws and
charters, 258; condition of England
in his reign, 260, 261; proposed as
King on his father's death, 263;
elected on the death of his brother
Eadward, 265; besieges Rochester,
ib.; his first marriage, 266; his prac-
tice of buying off the Danes, 275;
his treaty with Justin and Guthmund,
277, 628; he blinds Elfgar, 278;
buys peace again, 287; receives and
adopts Olaf, 288; his fits of vigour,
297, 298, 348; ravages Cumberland,
298, 663, 664; sends a fleet against
the Côtentin, 300; marries Emma,
301; his alleged visit to Normandy,
302; his children by Emma, 304;
his grants to Wherwell, 311; orders
the massacre of the Danes, 312, 634;
his favourites, 324; blinds the sons
of Elfhelm, 325; gives his daughter
Elfgifu to Uhtred, 327; and Eadgyth
to Eadric, 331; his utter mismanage-
ment, ib.; his laws, 332; how far
his own work, 336; seeks help from
Richard the Good, 339; his dealings
with Wulfnoth and Brihtric, 341;
plucks up heart, but is hindered by
Eadric, 342, 343; takes Thurkill into
his pay, 353, 354; his presence in
London, 357; deposed by the Witan,

358; takes refuge with Thurkill, 359;
flies to Normandy, 359, 360; ver-
sions of the story, 359; restored by
the Witan, 365; returns to Eng-
land, 366; drives Cnut out of Lin-
desey, 368; ravages Lindesey, 369;
confiscates the property of Sigeferth
and Morkere, 371; joins Eadmund's
army, 375; his death, 378; effects of
his government, 380; his children,
409, 669-673; his relations with
Normandy, 629-633.
Ethelred of Rievaux, his account of the
death of Eadric, i. 721; of Eadward
the Confessor, ii. 530.
Æthelric, alleged father of Eadric, ii.


Ethelric, Bishop of Durham, resigns
his see, i. 407.
Ethelric, monk of Christ Church, be-
comes Bishop of the South-Saxons,
ii. 414; consecrated by Stigand, 433.
Æthelsige, Bishop of Sherborne, his

embassy to Normandy, i. 284.
Ethelstan, Guthrum so called after
baptism, i. 164.

Æthelstan, King, his accession, i. 59;
his victories over the Welsh, Danes,
and Scots, 59, 60; his connexion with
foreign princes, 60, 183; his imperial
position, 140, 141, 545; his influence
in foreign countries, 182; he receives
Alan of Britanny, 183; his share
in Alan's return, 185; and in the
restoration of Lewis, 197, 198; his
relations with Arnulf, 201; protects
Lewis against Otto, 202; his legisla-
tion, 308; his fortifications at Exeter,

Æthelstan, Ealdorman of the East-

Angles, called the Half-King, i. 622.
Æthelstan, son of Æthelred, i. 670; his
will, 672, 705; if living at time of
Eadmund's coronation, 675.
Ethelstan, son-in-law of Ethelred,
killed at Ringmere, i. 344.
Æthelstan, son of Tofig, i. 424.
Æthelstan, Bishop of Hereford, rebuilds
the minster, ii. 390; his death, 392;
other notices of, 657.
Æthelthryth, Saint, founds the Abbey

of Ely, i. 273.
Ethelwald, son of Ethelred the First,
passed over by the Witan, i. 56, 107;
his alliance with the Danes, 56.
Ethelwald, Bishop of Winchester, fa-
vours the monks, i. 63; restores the
Abbey of Ely, 273.
Ethelwald, son of Ethelstan, first hus-
band of Elfthryth, i. 622.

Ethelweard, Ealdorman, character of
his Chronicle, i. 262, 276; his royal
descent, 262; advises payment to the
Danes, 276; negotiates with Olaf
Tryggvesson, 288; his use of the
words "Saxon" and "English," 532;
his account of the deposition of Sige-
berht, 594.
Ethelweard, son of Ethelwine, killed
at Assandun, i. 390, 622.
Ethelweard, son of Æthelmær, exe-
cuted, i. 411.

Ethelweard, Ealdorman, banished by
Cnut, i. 421.

Æthelweard, ordered by Cnut to kill
Eadwig, i. 700.

Ethelweard, Abbot of Glastonbury, his
death and character, ii. 560.
Ethelwig, Abbot of Evesham, ii. 438,
669, 670.

Ethelwine, Ealdorman of the East
Angles, his favour to the monks, i.
262; called the Friend of God, 262,
622; his parentage and children,
622; a claimant against the monas-
tery of Ely, 622, ii. 549; marries
Æthelflæd, sister of Brihtnoth, i. 622;
his titles, ib.; his family, ib.
Ethelwine, grandson of Leofwine of
Mercia, mutilated by the Danes, i.
Æthelwine, Bishop of Durham, succeeds

Ethelric, ii. 407; resigns his see and
becomes a monk at Peterborough,

Æthelwulf, his reign and wars with the
Danes, i. 45; succession of his sons,
b.; his will, 108; his foreign mar-
riage, 303.
Afficud, name corrupted from Ælfgifu,
i. 671.

Agapetus, Pope, excommunicates Hugh
the Great, i. 228.
Agatha of Hungary, wife of Eadward
the Etheling, ii. 650.

Ager publicus at Rome, its analogy
with the English Folkland, i. 83.
Agêsilaos, his paramount influence at
Sparta, i. 114.

Agnes, wife of Geoffrey Martel, ii. 622.
Agnes of Poitiers, mother of the Em-

peror Henry the Fourth, i. 451.
'Ayoph, Homeric, compared with the
English Gemót, i. 99.

Aidan, Bishop of Lindisfarn, i. 291.
Ailardus, physician, said to have been
sent to Harold, ii. 585.

Alan, Count of the Bretons, revolts
against the Normans, i. 182; takes
refuge with Æthelstan, 183; returns

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