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of the accounts of their travels, written by visitors to Jerusalem and the Holy Land, from A.D. 333 to A.D. 1483. These volumes include not only the descriptions given by Christian pilgrims, but also those by Mahomedan writers, which are of great interest with regard to the Arab buildings in Jerusalem; and the accounts, by Eusebius and Procopius, of the churches built by the Emperors Constantine and Justinian. It is hardly necessary to point out the advantage of reading descriptions written by persons who actually saw Jerusalem and its buildings in early times, having regard to the great alterations which have since been made in many of the latter. Considerable use has been made of these accounts in the compilation of the present work, and the quotations taken from them will give the reader an idea of the importance of the information which they contain.

There are many works dealing with the interval of time which has elapsed from the Turkish occupation of Jerusalem in 1517 to the present day, and, of these, it has been necessary to make a selection sufficient to carry on the continuity of the story without undue repetition. The books chosen for this purpose are: Sandys' Travels, giving an account of the Holy City in 1610; A Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, made by the Rev. H. Maundrell in 1697; A Description of the East, etc., by Dr. R. Pococke, who visited Jerusalem in 1737; Itinéraire de Paris à Jérusalem, by F. R. de Chateaubriand, the last traveller to give a description of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, before it was destroyed by the great fire in 1808;

and Biblical Researches in Palestine, by the Rev. E. Robinson, D.D., who travelled in the East, first in 1838, and a second time in 1852. The works of the latter writer are specially valuable, as, although some of the conclusions which he arrived at have been modified by more recent explorations, he may be regarded as the first scientific student of the topography of ancient Jerusalem.

Reference must also be made to the publications of the Palestine Exploration Fund, a Society which, since its foundation forty-six years ago, has, by the work of its explorers, and with the assistance of the many able writers who have contributed to its Quarterly Statement, accumulated a vast amount of useful information with regard to Palestine and Jerusalem.

Other books might be mentioned, but those of which the names have been given may be regarded as sufficient for the commencement of the study of the history of Jerusalem, especially as in them will be found references to many additional useful works. Those who give time and thought to the subject will find it a most fascinating one, but they will also probably find that, in order to understand it, they should visit the Holy City, examine carefully on the ground the points of interest which still exist, and learn to appreciate the manner in which the ancient city has, to a large extent, disappeared from sight beneath the masses of rubbish which have accumulated during the course of many centuries. It is, however, as well to remark, that a short visit is of little use for

the understanding of Jerusalem; the traveller who stops in a hotel, probably crowded with tourists, is hurried round the regular sights by his dragoman, and then leaves after two or three days, will almost certainly be disappointed, and may even regard Jerusalem as a fraud. It is necessary to live for a time in the city, to return to the same places again and again, and to read, mark and learn before one can appreciate the story of Jerusalem.

Many of the following pages were written in the Hospice of St. Paul, just outside the Damascus Gate, where, from the window overlooking the north wall of the city, one could see the sun rising over the Mount of Olives, and lighting up the domes, the minarets and the roof-tops of the Holy City. Below, under the cliff upon which the wall is built, was the dark entrance to the quarries of King Solomon, round which, evening after evening, the shepherds of the country gathered with their flocks to buy and sell, probably just as they had done since the days of King Solomon, when the sheep were brought daily to the north gate of the city for the Jewish sacrifices. The rulers of the people may change, but the ways of the people change not, and will probably remain the same, whatever may be the fortunes of Jerusalem in the future.

C. M. WATson.

February, 1912.


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