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The shaft (c, d, e, f) measures 55 inches tall, 9 inches broad, and 8 inches thick, slightly widening on the narrower face as it rises-quite contrary to custom. There is much that is unusual in the design, which is rather deeply and carefully chiselled, though not beautiful. Note the key-pattern running into a plait in e; the TLT design is found also in late crosses at Barton (Lancashire), and Glassonby (Cumberland), and in Wales and Ireland. Everything about this shaft suggests that Lastingham survived the Danish conquest, and did not remain deserted until the restoration in 1078. (B 3.)
The wood-carvings and the Ainhowe Cross are post-Conquest.
The great churchyard cross, of which the fragment (g) was found in 1838, near the east buttress of the porch (The Monastic Church of Lastingham, by J. C. Wall, pp. 90, 91), must have been about the largest of pre-Norman monuments. A big mortised stone in the churchyard is supposed to have been its base. The cross-head has a radius of 29 inches; breadth of arm, 11 inches; thickness in centre of head, 12 inches. The head alone must have been nearly 5 feet high; Ruthwell cross-head is 2 feet 10 inches. Bewcastle cross was about 21 feet high, including the head, now lost; this, to be wellproportioned, should rise about 24 feet above its base. The pattern on the fragment is weathered and obscure; at the end of the arm is a "cat's-cradle" pattern, incised. (A 2.)
The fragment of head (h) has also a "cat's cradle" on the end of the arm, but the same interlacing on the reverse. It is of a later type than a, having pellets in the plait, and perhaps a wheel. (A 3?) The fragment (i, j, k) is 81⁄2 inches high and 4 inches thick at the edge, hacked into high relief with a thin, stringy plait; perhaps part of a broad shaft, with plain or slightly incised sides, like 7. (A 3?)
The shaft (1, m, n, o) is of brown stone, 26 inches tall, 6 inches thick, the face 10 inches at base, above the tenon, to 7 inches at neck, under the wheel-head. The sides and n are incised; the edges m and o are in relief. The T pattern is like e, and, according to Mr. Wall (Reliquary, xii., 3, p. 154), the key-pattern of runs into interlacing above, as that of e does below. (B 3.)
The stones and 9 are perhaps door-jambs of the Anglian church; of brown stone, 7 by 18 inches on the face shown, finely carved in shallow relief on a flat ground. (A.) The fragment q is of white stone, 8 by 27 inches, the back knocked off and the sides without ornament. (A 2 ?)
LEVISHAM.-At the old church are the four fragments here figured. The two stones (a, b) are obviously parts of one grave-slab; each is 25 inches long by 18 inches broad at the broadest. The pattern is incised with the hack. The dragon's eye is circular. (B 2.)
The stone (c) is built in chancel; 22 by 11 by 8 weathered. Notice the asymmetry, and the trick by which a general feeling of balance is kept up. (B 3?)
outside the south-east corner of the inches; the pattern deep cut, but
The cross-head (d) is 10 inches broad and 8 inches high; the other side is similar, but has four bosses. It is much defaced, and probably not pre-Norman, but a finial.
In the new church is the old round font, with a cable moulding and Maltese cross roughly incised; hardly pre-Norman.
MASHAM. In the church is an Anglian cross-arm (a), of yellow sandstone, 22 inches long, 13 inches across the head, 10 inches across the arm, and 4 inches thick. It is defaced on the other side. (A 2.)
Also among the floriated crosses is a piece (b) much defaced, but apparently the centre and part of an arm of a similar cross, 17 by II by 3 inches. (A 2.)
In the churchyard is the great pillar figured in the next two plates, in which the surface of the cylinder is extended, to show all the carving in one view. It is a round column of coarse yellow sandstone, apparently much chipped at a recent date, and too weathered for complete deciphering. The highest course of panels, now 15 inches tall, must represent Christ and twelve Apostles. The second course, 21 inches high, seems to tell the story of a saint. The third, 21 inches high, has four panels of figure subjects and three trees. The lowest course, 23 inches high, has seven panels of fanciful creatures such as are seen on other Anglian sculptures of our series; some of the grotesque appearance is doubtless owing to the weathering of the soft stone. The circumference on the band above the lowest course is 81 inches; that on the band beneath the Apostles is 76 inches; total height, 81 inches. (A 2.)
MELSONBY.-On window-sills at the west end of the church are two stones, which appear to be elaborated grave-slabs. The section at a shows that they are unusually thick and deeply splayed (the second is similar in form to the first). The cutting is also uncommonly sharp, and there is even undercutting in some details, but the design is Anglian.
The whole length of a is 33 inches, of which only 26 inches show pattern; the part occupied by the section is defaced. The