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the value of the manor of Trematon had gone down at the time of the Survey, which may be accounted for by the fact that there were only ten ploughs where there ought to have been twenty-four. It was only a small manor, and no burgus is mentioned.

TUTBURY, Staffordshire (Fig. 34).—In the magnificent earthworks of this castle, and the strength of its site, we probably see a testimony to the ability of Hugh d'Avranches; for we learn from Ordericus that in 1070 William I. gave to Henry de Ferrers the castle of Tutbury, which had belonged to Hugh d’Avranches,' to whom the king then gave the more dangerous but more honourable post of the earldom of Chester. Domesday Book simply states that Henry de Ferrers has the castle of Tutbury, and that there are forty-two men living by their merchandise alone in the borough round the castle.?

At Tutbury the keep was placed on an artificial motte, which itself stood on a hill of natural rock, defended on the N.W. side by precipices. There is no trace of any ditch between the motte and bailey. At present there is only the ruin of a comparatively modern tower on the motte, but Shaw states that there was formerly a stone keep. A description of Elizabeth's reign says, “The castle is situated upon a round hill, and is circumvironed with a strong wall of astilar [ashlar] stone. ... The king's lodging therein is fair and strong, bounded and knit to the wall. And a fair stage hall of timber, of a great length. Four chambers of timber, and other houses well upholden, within the walls of the

1 Ord. Vit., ii., 222 (Prévost).

2 “Henricus de Ferrers habet castellum de Toteberie. In burgo circa castellum sunt 42 homines de mercato suo tantum viventes.” D. B., i.,

3 Shaw's History of Staffordshire, i., 49.

its apex.


The king's lodging will no doubt be the closed gatehouse; the custom of erecting gatehouse palaces arose as early as the 13th century. This account shows how many of the castle buildings were still of timber in Elizabeth's reign. The bailey is quadrant-shaped, and has the motte at

Its area is 21 acres. Its most remarkable feature is that it still retains its ancient banks on the east side and part of the south, and the more recent curtain is carried on top of them. This curtain is of the same masonry as the three remaining towers, which are of excellent Perpendicular work, and are generally attributed to John of Gaunt, who held this castle after his marriage with Blanche of Lancaster. The first castle was undoubtedly of wood; it was pulled down by order of Henry I. in 1175,nor does there seem to have been any resurrection till the time of Earl Thomas of Lancaster at the earliest.

Though Tutbury was the centre of the Honour of Ferrers, it does not seem to have been even a manor in Saxon times. The borough was probably the creation of the castellan, who also founded the Priory. There is no statement in the Survey from which we can learn the value T. R. E., but T. R. W. it was 41. 1os.

TYNEMOUTH, Northumberland.-Besieged and taken by William Rufus in 1095. There is no motte there, and probably never was one, as the situation is defended by precipitous cliffs on all sides but one, where a deep ditch has been cut across the neck of the headland.

WALLINGFORD, Berkshire (Fig. 35).—There is good i Quoted in Beauties of England and Wales, Staffordshire, p. 1129.

2 Diceto, i., 384. The castle was then besieged on Henry's behalf by the vassal prince of South Wales, the Lord Rhys.

3 The foundation charter is in Mon. Ang., iii., 393. 4 A.-S. C.

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Fig. 35.

(To face p. 228.

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