A Practical Treatise on Roads, Streets, and Pavements

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Van Nostrand, 1876 - 258 pages
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Page 97 - All the irregularities of the upper part of the said pavement are to be broken off by the hammer, and all the interstices to be filled with stone chips, firmly wedged or packed by hand with a light hammer, so that when the whole pavement is finished, there shall be a convexity of four inches in the breadth of fifteen feet from the centre.
Page 97 - The middle 18 feet of pavement is to be coated with hard stones to the depth of 6 inches. Four of these 6 iuches to be first put on and worked in by carriages and horses, care being taken to rake in the ruts until the surface becomes firm and consolidated, after which the remaining 2 inches are to be put on.
Page 97 - The paved spaces, on each side of the eighteen middle feet, are to be coated with broken stones, or well cleansed, strong gravel, up to the footpath or other boundary of the road, so as to make the whole convexity of the road six inches from the centre to the sides of it. The whole of the materials are to be covered with a binding of an inch...
Page 13 - To give the center line such a position, with reference to the natural surface of the ground, that the cost of construction shall be reduced to the smallest possible amount.
Page 89 - ... feet. No amount of rolling was sufficient to produce a thorough binding effect upon the stones, or to cause such a mechanical union and adjustment of their sides and angles together as to enable them mutually to assist each other in resisting displacement. The rolling was persisted in, with the roller adjusted to different weights up to the maximum load," (12 tons) " until it was apparent that the opposite effect from that intended was being produced. The stones became rounded by the excessive...
Page 48 - On rock slopes when the inclination of the natural surface is not greater than one perpendicular to two base, the road may be constructed partly in excavation and partly in embankment in the usual manner, or by cutting the face of the slope into horizontal steps with vertical faces, and building up the embankment in the form of a solid stone wall in horizontal courses, laid either dry or in mortar. Care is required in proportioning the steps, as all attempts to lessen the quantity of excavation by...
Page 205 - Fatal epidemics at sea have been traced to timber that has become saturated with putrescent matter, or wet with bilge water. Prof. Fonssagrives, of France, says : " The hygienist cannot, moreover, look favorably upon a street covering consisting of a porous substance capable of absorbing organic matter, and by its own decomposition giving rise to noxious miasma, which, proceeding from so large a surface, cannot be regarded as insignificant. I am convinced that a city with a damp climate, paved entirely...
Page 96 - Upon the level bed prepared for the road materials, a bottom course, or layer of stones, is to be set by hand, in form of a close firm pavement ; the stones set in the middle of the road are to be...
Page 125 - If there be substance enough already in the road, and which, indeed, should always be carefully kept up, it will never be right to put on more than a stone's thickness at a time. A cubic yard nicely prepared and broken, as before described, to a rod superficial, will be quite enough for a coat, and if accurately noticed, will be found to last as long as double the quantity put on unprepared and in thick layers. There is no grinding to pieces when so applied ; the angles are preserved, and the material...
Page 127 - Berthault Ducreux introduced a system of patching instead of general repairs, since when, the road was gradually improved, till it was in a very good state, and the annual expense reduced,by 13 or 14 per mile

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