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societies, local sympathy, and local cooperation. Foreign scholars, who travel through this country in a hurried way, know well that their knowledge of the land is superficial and their experience necessarily limited. Observers of American Democracy like Tocqueville, Kovalevsky, Freeman, Bryce, and Herbert Spencer may ascend the very citadel of scientific privilege; they may view the country with their own eyes, through newspapers, or through books, but they can never command the American situation. Nor is this their ambition. Their primary object is to sketch America for the benefit of their own countrymen; and they are always glad to carry home suggestive ideas for the completion of their sketches. Professor Kovalevsky would have been delighted to find in Baltimore articles on the Local Self-Government of every State in the Union. Mr. Bryce would have been pleased to find some scientific account of the origin and course of that municipal revolution in Philadelphia, where, in classic speech, Mr. Freeman described the overthrow of one-man power as procumbit humi bos!

American students are beginning to find out the scientific significance of contemporary Municipal and National Politics in America. They are beginning to see what wide-reaching economic, institutional, administrative, educational, political, and international problems may be investigated at home without going abroad for original material. Old world science and old world methods have been introduced into this country in a liberal way during the past few decades, and from this scientific vantageground it would seem to be most advisable for American students of History and Politics to enter fields for which there are in this country very superior advantages. While recognizing the unity of all Science, we must nevertheless admit that there are limitations and varying conditions for the successful prosecution of certain branches. It would obviously be very poor economy for an American, living in this country, to attempt to write the municipal or economic history of any English Town, German Free City, or French Commune, for which work the best, if not the only, materials are upon the other side of the Ocean. On the other hand, not even Deutscher Fleiss, or a German University, or the British Museum, can amass and control the materials, manuscript and printed, relating to a single American city or one


And yet such resources can

of the older New England Towns. easily be commanded by Americans at home, through the mediation of State Historical Societies, or through connection with American antiquarians and local historians. Why should Amer. icans attempt to write the history of foreign governments, foreign institutions, old world economies, when there is so much to do upon home-ground? The results of European investigations lie before our very doors, and can be employed in a thousand legitimate ways for the upbuilding of American Institutional and American Economic History. Pioneer work and fresh discoveries are everywhere possible in this country; but this cannot be said so emphatically of the Old World. All the benefit of scientific method and scholarly training that could be derived from traversing and re-traversing the archæological fields of Europe, may be enjoyed in America, with the additional advantage of finding new truth in independent ways.

No country has such scientific possibilities as America, where in a College Town of 12,000 inhabitants, like Northampton, Massachusetts, one individual, Judge Forbes, leaves a bequest of over two hundred thousand dollars for a free public library "of science and the arts in their broadest acceptation, of ancient and modern history, and of the literature of our own and other nations; " or where, as in the city of Baltimore, another individual, George Peabody, endows with $1,250,000 an institute, comprising, (in addition to lecture courses, a conservatory of music, and an art gallery), "an extensive library, to be well furnished in every department, to satisfy the researches of students who may be engaged in the pursuit of knowledge not ordinarily attainable in the private libraries of the country;" and where another individual, Enoch Pratt, endows another public library with over a million dollars; and where still another philanthropist endows a University and a Hospital upon a scientific basis with a total fund of $7,000,000. And if such generous foundations are not enough to gratify the growing wants of young Americans, there is the expanding Library of Congress, the Library of the State Department, with its manuscript treasures, the Smithsonian Institute, and the scientific resources of the National Government, which, through proper channels, may be commanded by the poorest student.

And yet even these prospects, my hearers, are not the widest which are opening to view. Through University cooperation in Baltimore, the individual scholar may now command the latest results of scientific inquiry, even before it takes permanent form in printed volumes and in the great libraries of Town, City, and Nation. Through our University Journals, the teacher of science, and the special student, even though removed from scientific centres, may learn of the progress of his department in this country and in Europe. Through a system of scientific exchanges, now developing in Baltimore, the Proceedings of learned societies, the most recent discoveries in foreign laboratories of science are quickly made known to American students. Through a New Book Department, the freshest monographs and the newest books, French, German, and English, are brought to student-notice immediately upon publication, so that Americans in Baltimore are more sure of seeing these things than is possible in the smaller German University towns, where such library organization is unknown.

By organized, cooperative effort, American students can estab. lish organic relations with European Universities, Old World Societies, foreign magazines of a special character, scientific appliances for publication, both in this country and in Europe,-in fact with the whole complex of Modern Science, into which no individual student can possibly find his way without scientific associations. Fellowship in Science will always afford the individual greater strength than he can acquire alone. A connection with learned societies, special libraries, special journals, is highly advantageous. Cooperation in University work and the organization of scientific results are very important for American students, who wish to advance the cause of special education in this country, and thereby the cause of American Science.

7. Local Government in Pennsylvania. Read before the Pennsylvania Historical Society, May 1, 1882. Published in the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, October, 1882. By E. R. L. GOULD, A. B. Victoria University, 1881; Fellow in History, Johns Hopkins University, 1882.

8. Origin and Development of the Municipal Government of New York City. I. The Dutch Period. II. The English Period. Published in the Magazine of American History, May and September, 1882. By J. F. JAMESON, Ph. D. Johns Hopkins University, 1882; Assistant in History, Johns Hopkins University.

9. Administration of Berlin compared with that of New York. Two articles in The Nation, March 23, 30, 1882. To be revised and enlarged for this series. By R. T. ELY, Ph. D. Heidelberg, 1879; Associate Professor of Political Economy, Johns Hopkins University.

10. Local Government of Michigan, and the North-west. Read before the Social Science Association, at Saratoga, September 7, 1882. By E. W. BEMIS, A. B. Amherst College, 1880.

11. French and English Institutions in Wisconsin. By W. F. ALLEN, A. M. Harvard, 1866; Professor of History and Latin, University of Wisconsin.

12. Civil Government in Iowa. By JESSE MACY, A. B. Iowa College, 1869; Professor of Historical and Political Science, Iowa College. 13. Indian, French, and English Towns in Ohio. By JoHN T. SHORT, Ph. D. Leipzig, 1880; Professor of History, Ohio State University and SAMUEL C. DERBY, A. B. Harvard, 1866; Fellow of Johns Hopkins University, 1880-1; Professor of Latin, Ohio State University.

14. The Parish Institutions of Maryland. With Illustrations from Parish Records. Abstract in Johns Hopkins University Circular, August 1882. By EDWard Ingle, A. B. Johns Hopkins University, 1882. To be read before the Maryland By LEWIS W. WILHELM, A. B.

15. Old and New Towns of Maryland.

Historical Society in December, 1882.

Johns Hopkins University, 1880; Graduate Scholar in History.

16. Old Maryland Manors. Note in Johns Hopkins University Circular, May, 1882. By JOHN JOHNSON, A. B. Johns Hopkins University, 1881. 17. History of Free Schools in Maryland. By BASIL SOLLERS, City College, 1871, and L. W. WILHELM, A. B. Johns Hopkins University, 1880. 18. The Institutions of North Carolina. Read before the Hist. and Polit. Science Association. Abstract in Johns Hopkins University Circular, May, 1882. By HENRY E. SHEPHERD, University of Virginia, late Superintendent of Public Instruction, Baltimore, now President of the College of Charleston, S. C.

19. Local Self Government in South Carolina, the Parish, the District, and the County. With other papers on Free Schools, Markets, Fairs, Militia, &c. Abstracts in Johns Hopkins University Circulars, February, May, 1882. By B. J. RAMAGE, A. B., Newberry College, 1880. Graduate Scholar in History, J. H. U. To be read before the South Carolina Historical Society in December, 1882.

20. Montauk, and the Common Lands of Easthampton, Long Island. Abstract in Johns Hopkins University Circular, May, 1882. By J. F. JAMESON.

DECEMBER 15, 1882.

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