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*FAVORIE = FORE, Westmeath. I owe this identification to Mr Orpen. As Hugh de Lacy founded or endowed the monastery at Fore,' this was probably one of his castles, but the first mention is in 1215 (Cal., i., 95). Mr Westropp mentions the oval motte of Fore with its bailey in his list of "complex motes.

FERNS, Wexford (Gir., v., 326).—A castle was built by Walter the German near Ferns. Ferns is spoken of as a city in the time of King Dermot. There is no motte at Ferns; the stone castle has a keep, which is certainly not earlier than the time of Henry III. [B. T. S.]

*FOTHERET ONOLAN, castle of Raymond le Gros (Gir., v., 355).-Mr Orpen identifies this with Castlemore, near Tullow, Co. Carlow. There is an oval motte, and a rectangular bailey with indications of masonry.3

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GALTRIM, Meath.-Identified by Mr Orpen with the castle of Hugh de Hose, or Hussey, mentioned in the Song of Dermot." Destroyed in 1176; no stone castle. An oval motte; bailey indistinctly traceable. [B. T. S.] GEASHILL, King's Co. (Cal., i., 30).—Mentioned in 1203 as a castle of William, Earl Marshall. There are remains of a motte, on which stands a 14th-century keep; but the whole site has been so pulled about in making a modern house, drive, and gardens, that nothing more can be made of the plan. The motte, however, is plain, though mutilated. [E. S. A.]

GRANARD, Longford (Cal., i., 95).-Built by Richard Tuit in 1199. A magnificent motte, with a very wide

1 Round, Cal. of Doc. preserved in France, i., 105, 107.

2 "On the Ancient Forts of Ireland," Trans. R. I. A., 1902.

3 Orpen, "The Castle of Raymond le Gros at Fodredunolan," Journ. R. S. A. 1., 1906.

+ Annals of Innisfallen.



ditch, and a small fan-shaped bailey. Foundations of a shell wall round the top of the motte, and of a small round tower in the centre. [B. T. S.]

*HINCHELEDER, or INCHELEFYRE (Cal., i., 95).—Said by Butler (Notices of Trim Castle, 12) to be Inchleffer, Meath, a castle of Hugh de Lacy. No further information.

JOHN DE CLAHULL'S CASTLE.—Mr Orpen believes this to be Killeshin, Queen's Co., as it corresponds to the description in the Song, "entre Eboy et Lethelyn." There is a motte there, and traditions of a town.

*KARAKITEL, or CARRICKITTLE, Limerick (Cal., i., 14). -Castle of William de Naas in 1199. There was a remarkable natural motte of rock here, with the foundations of a castle upon it, now destroyed.'

*KILLAMLUN (Cal., i., 53).-Identified by Mr Orpen with Killallon, Meath, where there is a large motte. There is a stone passage into this motte, but no evidence has been brought forward to prove that it is of the same nature as the prehistoric souterrains so common in Ireland.2 In England there is a remarkable instance at Oxford of a well-chamber built inside a motte.

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KILLARE, Westmeath (Gir., v., 356).—A castle of Hugh de Lacy, built in 1184; burnt in 1187. A good motte, with ditch and well-preserved bank on counterscarp; no bailey. No stone castle. [B. T. S.]

KILBIXIE, Westmeath.-Identified by Mr Orpen

1 Orpen, Eng. Hist. Rev., xxii., 449.

2 "On some Caves in the Slieve na Cailliagh District," by E. C. Rotheram, Proc. R. 1. A., 3rd ser., vol. iii. Mr Rotheram remarks that the passages in the motte of Killallon, and that of Moat near Oldcastle, seem as if they were not built by the same people as those who constructed the passages at Slieve na Cailliagh.

3 Annals of Ulster.

with Kelbery, given to Geoffrey de Constantin (Song, 3154); the castle is mentioned in a charter of Walter de Lacy, as well as in the Annals of Loch Cè, which state that it was built in 1192. A motte, with a broad ditch, and no bailey; but on the W. side the counterscarp bank of the ditch widens out into a sort of narrow half-moon terrace. This peculiarity may be noted in several other Irish castles. Foundations of an oblong shell on top of motte, and of a small square tower in the centre of this ward. [B. T. S.]

*KILFEAKLE, Tipperary (Cal., i., 29).—A castle of William de Burgh. Built in 1193. A motte and bailey; trace of a stone wing wall down the motte.

*KILMEHAL (Cal., i., 44).—Mr Orpen regards the identification of this castle with Kilmallock as extremely doubtful.


*KILMORE (Cal., i., 95).—Restored to Walter de Lacy in 1215. Identified with Kilmore, near Lough Oughter, Cavan. Mr Westropp mentions the motte at this place, which is outside the Anglo-Norman area. The castle was wrecked in 1225 or 1226, and no more is heard of it. The Anglo-Norman advance in this direction failed.

*KILSANTAN, Londonderry (Cal., i., 70).-Built by John de Courcy in 1197. Now called Kilsandal, or Mount Sandal, a large motte on the Bann, not far from Coleraine. The castle of Coleraine, inside the town, was built in 1214, apparently of stone, and probably superseded the castle of Kilsandal.


KILTINAN, Tipperary (Cal., i., 94).-Castle of Philip of Worcester in 1215. No motte; a headland castle

1 Annals of Loch Cè.

2 Orpen, Eng. Hist. Rev., xxii., 448.

3 lbid., p. 242.

Annals of Ulster. See Orpen, Eng. Hist. Rev., xxii., 443. 'Annals of Ulster.



overhanging a river valley. The castle has not only undergone a late Edwardian transformation, but has been cut up to make a modern mansion and farm buildings. No fosses or earthworks remain. [E. S. A.]

KNOCK, OF CASTLEKNOCK, Dublin (Cal., i., 81).— Castle of Hugh Tyrrel. An oval motte, walled round the top, carrying on its edge a smaller motte (with traces of a ditch) on which stand the ruins of an octagonal keep. No other bailey; ditch and bank double for more than half the circumference. [B. T. S.] Fig. 45.

*KNOCKGRAFFAN, Tipperary (Cal., i., 27).—Castle of William de Braose in 1202. One of the finest mottes to be seen anywhere. Built in 1192, at the same time as the castle of Kilfeakle.' The motte is 55 feet high, has a wide ditch and high counterscarp bank, which is also carried round the ditch of the "hatchet-shaped" bailey, in proper Norman fashion. 'There are indications of a rectangular stone building on the flat summit of the mote, and there are extensive stone foundations in the bailey."

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*LAGELACHON (Cal., i., 95).—Probably Loughan or Castlekieran, in which parish is the great motte of Derver.3

LEA, Queen's Co. (Cal., i., 30).-Castle of William, Earl Marshall, in 1203. A motte with two baileys; motte entirely occupied, and partly mutilated by a 13th-century keep, with two large roundels. [B. T. S.]

LEIGHLIN, Carlow.-Mr Orpen has shown that the fine motte of Ballyknockan answers to the description

1 Annals of the Four Masters, vol. iii. See Orpen, Journ. R. S. A. I., vol. xxxix., 1909.

2 Orpen, Eng. Hist. Rev., xxii., 448. A place called Graffan is mentioned in the Book of Rights, and on the strength of this mere mention it has been argued that the motte is a prehistoric work. Trans. R. I. A., vol. xxxi., 1902. 3 Mr Orpen.

given by Giraldus of the site of the castle of Lechlin built by Hugh de Lacy.1 There is a trace of a possible bailey. The stone castle called Black Castle at Leighlin Bridge is of very late date. Those who believe that we have authentic history of Ireland in the 3rd century B.C. will be able to believe with Dr Joyce that the description of the annalists identifies this motte with the site of the ancient palace of Dinn Righ, burnt by the chieftain Maen at that date! [B. T. S.]

LISMORE, Waterford (Gir., i., 386).—About a quarter of a mile from Lismore, above a ford of the river, is an excellent specimen of a Norman motte and bailey, called the Round Hill. The name of the prehistoric fort of Dunsginne has lately been applied to it, but purely by guesswork. The Song says that Henry II. intended to build a castle at Lismore, and that it knows not why he put it off. Possibly he may have placed these earthworks here, and never added the wooden castle, or else this is the site of the castle which was built by his son John in 1185. The castle inside the town is certainly later than the time of John, as although much modernised it is clearly Edwardian in plan. The Norman fragments incorporated in the walls probably belonged to the abbey of St Carthagh, on the site of which the town castle is said to have been built. The so-called King John's Tower is only a mural tower, not a keep. [B. T. S.]

*LOUTH, or LUVETH (Cal., i., 30).—A royal castle in 1204, but it must have been in existence as early as 1196, when the town and castle of Louth were burnt by

1 Giraldus' words are: "Castrum Lechliniæ, super nobilem Beruæ fluvium, a latere Ossiriæ, trans Odronam in loco natura munito." V., 352. See Eng. Hist. Rev., xxii., 245.

2 See Orpen, Eng. Hist. Rev., xxii., 456, and Journ. R. S. A. I., xxxvii., 140.

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