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residence of the Durwards, superseded in the 15th century by a building of stone, and that it has nothing to do with Macbeth, whose burial-place is said to be a cairn in the neighbourhood.
Fitz ALAN.- This is the well-known ancestor of the House of Stuart, Walter, a cadet of a great Norman family in Shropshire, who is said to have obtained lands in Scotland in Malcolm Canmore's time. Renfrew was one of his seats, and Inverwick, in Haddington, another. Renfrew Castle is entirely destroyed, but the description of the site, on a small hill, ditched round, called Castle Hill, strongly suggests a motte. The keep of Inverwick stands on a natural motte of rock.2 Dunoon was one of their castles, near to which "stood the Tom-a-mhoid, or Hill of the court of justice” (G.), possibly an ancient motte.: Dunoon Castle, however, itself stands on a motte, partly artificial and partly carved out of a headland. (N.)
Fleming.— There were many Flemings among the followers of David I., and eventually the name stuck to their descendants as a surname. Baldwin the Fleming obtained lands at Biggar, in Lanarkshire. There is a motte at the west end of the town of Biggar, 36 feet high. Biggar was the head of a barony. (N. S. A.
. ( and N.) Colban the Fleming settled at Colbantown, now Covington, Lanarkshire, where there is a motte (N.). Robert the Fleming has left a well-preserved oblong motte at Roberton, in Lanark, which was a barony, and where the moit was spoken of in 1608. (N.)
i See the Aberdeen volume, p. 1092.
3 The name Tom-a-mhoid is derived by some writers from the Gaelic Tom, a tumulus (Welsh Tomen) and moid, a meeting. Is there such a word for a meeting in Gaelic? If there is, it must be derived from AngloSaxon mot or gemot. But there is no need to go to Gaelic for this word, as it is clear from the Registrum Magni Sigilli that moit was a common version of mote, and meant a castle hill, the mota or mons castri, as it is often called.
GRAHAM.—Came from England under David I., and received lands in Lothian. A Graham was lord of Tarbolton, 'in Ayrshire, in 1335, so it is possible that the motte at that place, on which stood formerly the chief messuage of the barony of Tarbolton, was one of their castles (N. S. A.), but it may have been older.
HAMILTON.-It is not certain that the Hamiltons came to Scotland before 1272. King Robert I. gave them the barony of Cadzow, Lanark, which had originally been a royal seat. In Hamilton Park there is a mote hill, which was the site of the chief messuage
of this barony (N.). It was formerly surrounded by the town of Hamilton. (N. S. A.) It is of course possible that this motte may be much older than the Hamiltons, as the site of an originally royal castle.
Hay.—First appears in the 12th century, as butler to Malcolm IV. The family first settled in Lothian, where they had lands at Lochorworth. The Borthwick family, who got this estate by marriage, obtained a license from James I. about 1430 to build a castle the mote of Locherwart,” and to this castle they gave their own name. (N. S. A.) No doubt it was the original motte of the Hays. King William
King William gave the Hays the manor of Errol, in Perthshire, which was made into a barony. Here is or was the mote of Errol, "a round artificial mound about 20 feet high, and 30 feet in diameter at the top; the platform at the top surrounded with a low turf wall, and the whole enclosed with a turf wall at the base, in the form of an equilateral triangle.” (N. S. A.; evidently a triangular bailey.) It is called the Law Knoll, and is spoken of as a fortalicium in 1546. (N.)
LENNOX.- The earls of Lennox are descended from Arkel, an Englishman, who received from Malcolm Canmore lands in Dumbartonshire. At Catter, near the Earl's castle, is a large artificial mound."
LOCKHART.-Stevenston, in Ayrshire, takes its name from Stephen Loccard, and Symington, in Lanark, from his son (?), Simon Loccard. At Stevenson there was formerly a castle, and there still (1845) is a Castle Hill. Stevenston was given by Richard Morville to Stephen Loccard about 1170. (N. S. A.) At Symington there was formerly a round mound, called Law Hill, at the foot of the village, but it has been levelled. (N. S. A.)
LOGAN.—A Robert Logan witnesses a charter of William the Lion, and appears later as Dominus Robertus de Logan. The name Robert shows his Norman origin. At Drumore, near Logan (parish of Kirkmaiden, Wigton), there was a castle, and there is still a court hill or mote. Another mote, at Myroch, in the same parish, is mentioned by Mr Neilson as the site of the chief messuage of the barony of Logan.
Lovel-Settled at Hawick, Roxburghshire. The mote of Hawick, from the picture in Scott's Border Antiquities, seems to be a particularly fine one.
a Hawick was a barony, and Le Moit is mentioned in 1511. (N.)
Lyle, or LISLE.— The castle of this Norman family was at Duchal, Renfrewshire. The plan is clearly that of a motte and bailey, but the motte is of natural
a rock. 3
MALE, now Melville.—Settled in Haddingtonshire 1 Chalmers, Caledonia, iii., 864. Sir Archibald Lawrie, however, regards it as doubtful whether Arkel was the ancestor of the earls of Lennox. Early Scottish Charters, p. 327.
2 M‘Ferlie, Lands and Their Owners in Galloway, ii., 140-141. 3 See plan in MacGibbon and Ross, Castellated Architecture, iv., 341.
under David I., and called their seat Melville. Melville Castle is modern. They afterwards obtained by marriage lands on the Bervie River, in the Mearns. Dr Christison's map shows a motte near the mouth of the Bervie.
MAXWELL.—Maccus, son of Unwin? (evidently of Scandinavian origin), received lands on the Tweed from David I., and called his seat Maccusville, corrupted into Maxwell. There is a motte at Maxwell, near Kelso. (N.) Maxton, in Roxburghshire, takes its name from him, and there is a motte called Ringley Hall, on the Tweed, in this parish. (C. and N. S. A.)
Montalt, or Mowat.-Robert de Montalto (Mold, in Flintshire) witnesses a charter of David I. The family settled in Cromarty. Le Mote at Cromarty is mentioned in 1470. (N.)
MONTGOMERY.—This family is undoubtedly descended from some one of the sons of the great Earl Roger of Shrewsbury, settled in Scotland after the ruin of his family in England. Robert de Montgomerie received the manor of Eaglesham, Renfrew, from Fitz Alan, the High Steward of Scotland. The principal messuage of this manor was at Polnoon, } mile S. E. of Eaglesham. Here Sir John Montgomerie built the castle of Polnoon about 1388. (N. S. A.) The O.M. seems to show that the ruins of this castle stand on a motte, probably the original castle of Montgomerie.
MORVILLE.--Hugh de Morville was a Northamptonshire baron, the life-long friend of David I. He founded one of the most powerful families in the south
· The name Maccus is undoubtedly the same as Magnus, a Latin adjective much affected as a proper name by the Norwegians of the ud and 12th centuries.
2 Lawrie, Early Scottish Charters, p. 273.
of Scotland, though after three generations their lands passed to heiresses, and their chief seat is not even known by name. But Mr Neilson states that Darnhall, in Peebles, was the head of their “ Black Barony," and that there is a motte there. As Hugh de Morville gave the church of Borgue to Dryburgh Abbey about 1150, it is probable that the motte at Boreland of Borgue was one of his castles. The barony of Beith, in Ayr, given by Richard de Morville to the Abbey of Kilwinning, has also a motte, which may be reckoned to be the site of a De Morville castle. Largs, in Ayr, belonged to the De Morvilles, and has a Castle Hill near the village, which appears to be a motte. (G.)
Mowbray.—This well-known Norman family also sent a branch to Scotland. Amongst other places, about which we have no details, they held Eckford, in Roxburghshire. In this parish, near the ancient mansion, is an artificial mount called Haughhead Kipp. (N. S. A.) This seems a possible motte, but its features are not described.
MURRAY.-Freskin the Fleming came to Scotland under David I., and received from that king lands in Moray. He built himself a castle at Duffus, in Elgin, which is on the motte-and-bailey plan. The stone keep now on the motte appears to be of the 14th century. Freskin's posterity took the name of De Moravia, or Moray. (Fig. 44.)
OLIPHANT, or OLIFARD.—Cambuslang, in Lanark, belonged to Walter Olifard, Justiciary of Lothian in the time of Alexander II. About a mile E. of the church is a circular mound 20 feet high. It was here that the Oliphants' castle of Drumsagard formerly stood. (N. S. A.) Drumsagard was a barony. (N.)
MacGibbon and Ross, i., 279.