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Bruces. (G.) The fine motte and bailey at Moffat must also have been one of their castles, as Moffat was one of their demesne lands. (Fig. 44.) )

CATHCART. —Name territorial. Rainald de Cathcart witnesses a charter in the Paisley Register) in 1179. Near the old castle of Cathcart, Lanark, is “an eminence called Court Knowe.” (N. S. A.) As Mr Neilson has shown, these court knowes and court hills are generally disused mottes. The name Rainald is clearly Norman.

CHEYNE.—This family is first known in 1258, but had then been long settled in Scotland, and were hereditary sheriffs of Banffshire. Chalmers only mentions their manor of Inverugie, in Aberdeenshire. Behind the ruins of Inverugie Castle rises a round flat-topped hill, which was the Castle Hill or Mote Hill of former days. (N. S. A.)

COLVILLE. — Appears in Scotland in the reign of Malcolm IV., holding the manors of Heton and Oxnam, in Roxburgh. About į mile from Oxnam (which was a barony) is a moated mound called Galla Knowe. (O.M., C., and N.) Hailes identified the castle in Teviotdale,

, captured and burnt by Balliol in 1333, with that of Oxnam.” Le Mote de Oxnam is mentioned in 1424 (N.).

Cumyn, or ComYN.—The first of this family came to Scotland as the chancellor of David 1.3 First seated at Linton Roderick, in Roxburghshire, where there is a rising ground, surrounded formerly by a foss, the site of the original castle ; (G.) a description which seems to

1 This description, taken from the Gazetteer, seems clear, but Mr Neilson tells me the site is more probably Woody Castle, which is styled a manor in the 15th century. The N. S. A. says: “There is the site of an ancient castle close to the town, on a mound of considerable height, called the Castle Hill, which is surrounded by a deep moat.” “Dumfries," p. 383.

2 Annals, ii., 196, cited in Douglas's History of the Border Counties, 173. 3 Round, in The Ancestor, 10, 108.

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COMYN--CUNNINGHAM

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suggest a motte. William the Lion gave the Cumyns Kirkintilloch in Dumbarton, and we afterwards find them at Dalswinton in Dumfriesshire, and Troqueer in Kirkcudbright. At Kirkintilloch the O.M. shows a square mount concentrically placed in a square enceinte. The enclosure was apparently one of the forts on the wall of Agricola, but the writer on Kirkintilloch in the N. S. A. suspected that it had been transformed into a castle by the Cumyns. At Dalswinton the O.M. shows a motte, and calls it the “site of Cumyn's Castle.” At Troqueer, "directly opposite the spot on the other side the river where Cumyn's Castle formerly stood is a mote of circular form and considerable height.” (N. S. A.) The Cumyn who held Kirkintilloch in 1201, was made Earl of Buchan, and held the vast district of Badenoch, or the great valley of the Spey. The N. S. A. gives many descriptions of remains in this region which are suggestive of motte-castles; we can only name the most striking : Ruthven, “a castle reared by the Comyns on a green conical mound on the S. bank of the Spey, thought to be partly artificial,” now occupied by ruined barracks; Dunmullie, in the parish of Duthill, where “there can be traced vestiges of a motte surrounded by a ditch, on which, according to tradition, stood the castle of the early lords”; Crimond, where Cumyn had a castle, and where there is a small round hill called Castle Hill; and Ellon, where the Earl of Buchan had his head court, on a small hill which has now disappeared, but which was anciently known as the moot-hill of Ellon. Saisin of the earldom was given on this hill in 1476. (N. S. A.)

CUNNINGHAM. Warnebald, who came from the north of England, was a follower of the Norman, Hugh de Morville, who gave him the lands of Cunningham, in Ayrshire, from which the family name was taken. In

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the parish of Kilmaurs, which is in the district of Cunningham, there is a “mote,” which may have been the castle of Warnebald; at any rate the original manor place of Cunningham was in this parish. It is of course possible that this motte may have been originally a De Morville castle.

DOUGLAS. - Name territorial; progenitor was Fleming, who received lands on the Douglas water, in Lanark, in the middle of the 12th century. In the park of Douglas, to the east of the modern castle, is a mound called Boncastle, but we are unable to state certainly that it is a motte. Lag Castle, in the parish of Dunscore, “has a moat or court hill a little to the east." (N. S. A. : shown in Grose's picture.) It must have been originally Douglas land, as in 1408 it was held by an armour-bearer of Douglas.

DURAND.—Clearly a Norman name, corrupted into Durham.

The family were seated at Kirkpatrick Durham in the 13th century. There is or was a motte at Kirkpatrick."

DURWARD.—This family was descended from Alan de Lundin, who was dur-ward or door-keeper to the king about 1233. They possessed a wide domain in Aberdeenshire, and had a castle at Lumphanan, where Edward I. stayed in 1296. There is a round motte in the Peel Bog at Lumphanan, surrounded by a moat, which was fed by a sluice from the neighbouring burn. There were ruins in masonry on the top some hundred years ago. The writer of the N. S. A. account of this place, with remarkable shrewdness, conjectures that a wooden castle on this mound was the ancient

· Dr Christison distinctly marks one on his map, but Mr Coles says there is no trace of one, though the name Marl Mount is preserved. Soc. Ant. Scot., 1892, p. 108.

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