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*TALGARTH.—Mentioned in a charter of Roger, Earl of Hereford, not later than 1156. A 13th-century tower on a small motte is still standing, and can be seen from the railway between Brecon and Hereford.
CastlES OF RADNORSHIRE.
*Radnor, or Maes Hyvaidd.—Though this castle is not mentioned in the Brut till 1196, when it was burnt by Rhys ap Griffith, it must have been built by the Normans at a very early period. The English had penetrated into the Radnor district even before the Norman Conquest, and the Normans were not slow to follow them. A charter of Philip de Braose is granted
“Raddenoam" not later than 1096.8 There are mottes both at Old and New Radnor, towns three miles distant from each other, so that it is impossible to say which was the Maes Hyvaidd of the Brut. Both may have been originally De Braose castles, but New Radnor evidently became the more important place, and has massive remains in masonry.
The town was a burgus.
*GEMARON, or Cwm Aron (Fig. 42).- Near LlandewiYstrad-denny. The Brut mentions its repair by Hugh Mortimer in 1145.* The 6-inch O.M. shows a square central bailey of i acre, containing some remains of masonry, lying between an oblong motte in the S. and an outer enclosure on the N., the whole being further defended by a high counterscarp bank on the W. It
1 Arch. Camb., N. S., V., 23-28.
2 “Wales and the Coming of the Normans,” by Professor Lloyd, in Cymmrodorion Transactions, 1899. 3 Marchegay, Chartes du Prieurie de Monmouth, cited by Professor
, Lloyd, as above.
4 Brut, 1143.
CASTLES OF RADNORSHIRE
commands a ford over the river Aran. There is no village attached to it.
* Maud's CASTLE, otherwise Colwyn or Clun. —A ditched motte with square bailey on the left bank of the river Edwy, near the village of Forest Colwyn. The statement that this castle was repaired in 1145 shows that it must have been older than the time of Maude de Braose, from whom it is generally supposed to have taken its name. It was rebuilt by Henry III. in 1231.
*Payn's Castle, otherwise “the castle of Elvael.” -First mentioned in 1196, when it was taken by Rhys ap Griffith. This is also a motte-castle (and an exceptionally fine one), placed on a road leading from Kington in Hereford to Builth. Rebuilt in stone by Henry III. in 1231.3 (Fig. 42.)
*KNIGHTON, in Welsh Trefclawdd.-First mentioned in the Pipe Roll of 1181. The motte still remains, near the church. There is another motte just outside the village, called Bryn y Castell. It may be a siege castle.
*Norton.-First mentioned in the Pipe Roll of 1191. A motte remains close to the church, and two sides of a bailey which ran down to the Norton brook.
*BLEDDFA, the Bledewach of the Pipe Roll of 11951196, when £ 5 was given to Hugh de Saye ad firmandum castellum, an expression which may mean either building or repairing. An oval motte, and traces of a bailey, are
a marked in the 6-inch O.M.
TYNBOETH, alias Dyneneboth, Tinbech,* and Llan
i Not to be confounded with the castle of Clun in Shropshire.
2 Annales Cambria and Annales de Margam. See plan in Arch. Camb., 4th ser., vi., 251.
3 Annales Cambriæ.
* Really Ty-yn-yr Bwlch, the house in the pass. Not to be confounded with Tenby in Pembrokeshire.
anno.—First mentioned in Pipe Roll of 1196-1197. There is a fine large motte in a commanding situation, and a crescent-shaped bailey, now marked only by a scarp. There are some remains of masonry, and the castle was evidently an important one. It is first mentioned in the Pipe Roll of 1196, and it occurs in lists of the Mortimer castles in the 14th century. It is not far from two fords of the river Ithon. [H. W.]
These four castles are not mentioned in the Brut y Tywysogion, though the Annales Cambriæ mentions the capture of Bleddfa, Knighton, and Norton by the Welsh in 1262. They all command important roads. Knighton and Norton were boroughs.
CASTLES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE,
CARDIFF (Fig. 43).—The first castle of Cardiff was certainly a wooden one; its lofty mound still remains. It is placed inside a Roman station, and the south and west walls of the castle bailey rest on Roman foundations, "but do not entirely coincide with those foundations.” ? The Roman fort was probably ruinous when Robert Fitz Hamon placed his first castle there, as on the N. and E. sides the bailey is defended by an earthbank, in which the remains of a Roman wall have been found buried. The area of the Roman castrum was about 81 acres, and evidently the Normans found this too large, as they divided it by a cross wall, which reduces the inner fort to about 2 acres. The motte has its own ditch. The position of Cardiff was a very important base, not only as a port near Bristol, but as a point on 1 Cal. of Close Rolls, Ed. II., iii., 415, 643. See “Cardiff Castle : its Roman Origin," by John Ward, Archæologia,