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castle." The king's lodging will no doubt be the closed gatehouse; the custom of erecting gatehouse palaces arose as early as the 13th century. This account shows how many of the castle buildings were still of timber in Elizabeth's reign.

Its most remarkable ancient banks on the and the more recent

The bailey is quadrant-shaped, and has the motte at its apex. Its area is 2 acres. feature is that it still retains its east side and part of the south, curtain is carried on top of them. This curtain is of the same masonry as the three remaining towers, which are of excellent Perpendicular work, and are generally attributed to John of Gaunt, who held this castle after his marriage with Blanche of Lancaster.

The first castle was undoubtedly of wood; it was pulled down by order of Henry I. in 1175, nor does there seem to have been any resurrection till the time of Earl Thomas of Lancaster at the earliest.

Though Tutbury was the centre of the Honour of Ferrers, it does not seem to have been even a manor in Saxon times. The borough was probably the creation of the castellan, who also founded the Priory. There is no statement in the Survey from which we can learn the value T. R. E., but T. R. W. it was 4/. 10S.

TYNEMOUTH, Northumberland.—Besieged and taken by William Rufus in 1095. There is no motte there, and probably never was one, as the situation is defended by precipitous cliffs on all sides but one, where a deep ditch has been cut across the neck of the headland.

WALLINGFORD, Berkshire (Fig. 35).-There is good

1 Quoted in Beauties of England and Wales, Staffordshire, p. 1129. 2 Diceto, i., 384. The castle was then besieged on Henry's behalf by the vassal prince of South Wales, the Lord Rhys.

3 The foundation charter is in Mon. Ang., iii., 393.

4 A.-S. C.

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reason to suppose that in the vallum of the town of Wallingford we have an interesting relic of Saxon times. Wallingford is one of the boroughs enumerated in the Burghal Hidage; it was undoubtedly a fortified town at the time of the Conquest,' and is called a burgus in Domesday Book; but there appears to be no evidence to connect it with Roman times except the discovery of a number of Roman coins in the town and its neighbourhood. No Roman buildings or pavements have ever been found. The Saxon borough was built on the model of a Roman chester: a square with rounded corners. The rampart of Wallingford, which still exists in great part, is entirely of earth, and must have been crowned with a wooden wall, such as was still existing at Portsmouth in Leland's time. The accounts of Wallingford in the great Survey are very full and important. "King Edward had eight virgates in the borough of Wallingford, and in these there were 276 haughs paying 11. of rent. Eight have been destroyed for the castle.' This Norman castle was placed in the N.E. corner of the borough. At present its precincts cover 30 acres," but this includes garden grounds, and no doubt represents later enclosures. No ancient plan of the castle has been preserved, but from Leland's description there appear to have been three wards in his



1 William of Poitiers calls it an oppidum, p. 141. 2 Hedges, History of Wallingford.

3 "The Towne of Portsmuth is murid from the Est Tower a forowgh lenght with a Mudde Waulle armid with Tymbre." Itin., iii., 113.


4 "In burgo de Walingeford habuit Rex Edwardus 8 virgatas terræ ; et in his erant 276 hagæ reddentes 11 libras de gablo. . . . Pro castello sunt 8 destructæ." D. B., i., 56. If we divide these 276 haughs by the 114 acres enclosed by the town rampart, we get an average of about 1 rood 26 perches for each haugh; multiply this by 8 (the number destroyed for the castle) and we get an area of 3 acres, which is about the average area of an early Norman castle.

Hedges, History of Wallingford, i., 139.

time, each defended by banks and ditches. The inner ward, which was doubtless the original one, is rudely oblong in shape; it covers 4 acres. Leland says,


"All the goodly buildings, with the towers and dungeon, be within the third dyke." The motte, which still exists, was on the south-eastern edge of this ward; that is, it was so placed as to overlook both the borough and the ford over the Thames.' It was ditched around, and is said to have had a stone keep on the top; but foundations were found when it was recently excavated. It was found to rest on a foundation of solid masonry several feet thick, sloping upwards towards the outside, so that it must have stood in a kind of stone saucer. The masonry which remains in the other parts of the castle is evidently none of it of the early Norman period, unless we accept a fragment of wall which contains courses of tiles. Numerous buildings were added in Henry III.'s reign; the walls and battlements were repaired, and the hurdicium, which had been blown down by a high wind, was renewed.3 But the motte and the high banks show clearly that the first Norman castle was of wood.

The value of the royal borough of Wallingford had considerably risen since the Conquest.1

WARWICK (Fig. 36).-Here again we have a castle built on land which the Conqueror obtained from a Saxon convent, a positive proof that there was no castle there previously. Only a small number of houses was

1 Camden speaks of the motte as being in the middle of the castle, but this is a mistake.


2 Such is the account in Hedges' History of Wallingford, p. 139, but it sounds odd. It is to be inferred from the same source that the fragment of a round building which stands on the top of the motte must be modern; it is thick enough to be ancient.

3 Close Rolls, i., anno 1223.

4 D. B., i., 56.

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