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answers most of the questions which pertain to our present inquiry. The original castle of Chester consisted of the motte, which still remains, though much built over, and the small ward on the edge of which it stands, a polygonal enclosure scarcely an acre in extent.

On the motte the vaulted basement of a tower still remains, but the style is so obscured by whitewash and modern accretions that it is impossible to say whether the vaulting is not modern. The first buildings were certainly of wood, but Mr Cox regarded some of the existing masonry on the motte as belonging to the 12th century; and this would correspond with the entry in the Pipe Rolls of 102l. 75. od. spent on the castle by Henry II. in 1159. The tower, nicknamed Cæsar's

' Tower, and frequently mistaken for the keep, is shown in Mr Cox's paper to be only a mural tower of the 13th century, probably built when the first ward was surrounded with walls and towers in masonry. The large outer bailey was first added in the reign of Henry III. It is further proved by Mr Cox that Chester Castle stood outside the walls of the Roman city. The manor of Gloverstone lay between it and the city, and was not under the jurisdiction of the city until quite recent times. This disposes of the ball set rolling by Brompton at the end of the 13th century, and sent on by most Chester topographers ever since, that Ethelfleda, when she restored the Roman walls of Chester,


1 Pipe Rolls, ii., 7. Ranulph, Earl of Chester, died in 1153, and the castle would then escheat into the king's hands.

This work seems to have been completed in the reign of Edward II., who spent £253 on the houses, towers, walls, and gates. Cal. of Close Rolls, Edward II., ii., 294.

3 Close Rolls, 35, Henry III., cited by Ormerod, History of Cheshire, i., 358.

4 See Mr Cox's paper, as above, and Shrubsole, Chester Hist, and Arch. Soc., V., 175, and iii., New Series, p. 71.

enlarged their circuit so as to take in the castle. We have already referred to this in Chapter III.

Chester, as we have seen, was originally a royal castle. And though it was naturally committed to the keeping of the Norman earls of Chester, and under weak kings may have been regarded by the earls as their own property, no such claim was allowed under a strong ruler. After the insurrection of the younger Henry, Hugh, Earl of Chester, forfeited his lands; Henry II. restored them to him in 1177, but was careful to keep the castle in his own hands.1

The city of Chester, Domesday Book tells us, had greatly gone down in value when the earl received it, probably in 1070; twenty-five houses had been destroyed. But it had already recovered its prosperity at the date of the Survey; there were as many houses as before, and the ferm of the city was now let by the earl at a sum greatly exceeding the ferm paid in King Edward's time. This prosperity must have been due to the security provided for the trade of Chester by the Norman castle and Norman rule.

CLIFFORD, Herefordshire (Fig. 13). — It is clearly stated by Domesday Book that William FitzOsbern built this castle on waste land. At the date of the Survey it was held by Ralph de Todeni, who had sublet it to the sheriff. In the many castles attributed to William FitzOsbern, who built them as the king's vicegerent, we may see an indication that the building of castles, even on the marches of Wales, was not undertaken without royal license. In the reign of Henry I. Clifford Castle had already passed into the

i Benedict of Peterborough, i., 135, R. S. ? D. B., i., 262b.

3 “Willelmus comes fecit illud (castellum] in wasta terra quam tenebat Bruning T. R. E.” D. B., i., 183a, 2.

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FIG. 13.

[To face p. 128.



hands of Richard Fitz Pons, the ancestor of the celebrated house of Clifford, and one of the barons of Bernard de Neufmarché, the Norman conqueror of Brecon.

The castle has a large motte, roughly square in shape, which must be in part artificial.? Attached to it on the south-west is a curious triangular ward, included in the ditch which surrounds the motte.

The masonry on the motte is entirely of the “Edwardian” style, when keepless castles were built ; it consists of the remains of a hall, and a mural tower which is too small to be called a keep. There is also a small court, with a wall which stands on a low bank. Below the motte is an irregular bailey of about 2 acres, with earthen banks which do not appear to have ever carried any masonry, though in the middle of the court there is a small mound which evidently covers the remains of buildings. The whole area of the castle, including the motte and the two baileys, is about 33 acres.

The value of the manor had apparently risen from nothing to 81. 55.

Clifford was not the centre of a large soke. CLITHEROE, Lancashire (Fig. Lancashire (Fig. 13). — There is no

– express mention of this castle in Domesday Book, but of two places in Yorkshire, Barnoldswick and Calton, it is said that they are in the castellate of Roger the Poitevin.' A castellate implies a castle, and as there is

1 “Ancient Charters,Pipe Roll Society, vol. X., charter xiii., and Mr Round's note, p. 25.

* It is extraordinary that Mr Clark, in his description of this castle, does not mention the motte, except by saying that the outer ward is 60 or 70 feet lower than the inner. M. M. A., i., 395.

3 This passage occurs in a sort of appendix to Domesday Book, which is said to be in a later hand, of the 12th century. (Skaife, Yorks. Arch. Journ., Part lv., p. 299.) It cannot, however, be very late in the 12th century, as it speaks of Roger's holdings in Craven in the present tense.


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