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Canterbury was going on in the years 1215-1225. But it is too often forgotten that where a wall stands on an earthen bank it is a clear proof that before the wall was built there was a wooden stockade in its place. Now the portion of the city wall which encloses the Dane John stands on an earthen bank; so, indeed, does the whole wall from the Northgate to the castle. It is clear that this piece of bank cannot have been made till the first Norman castle, represented by the earthwork, was abandoned ; and fortunately we have some evidence which suggests a date for the change. In the Pipe Rolls of Henry II.'s reign there are yearly entries, beginning in 1168, of 55. paid to Adeliza Fitzsimon “ for the exchange of her land which is in the castle of Canterbury." There can be little doubt that this land was purchased to build the great Plantagenet castle whose splendid keep was once one of the finest in England. The portion of the castle wall which can still be seen does not stand on an earthen bank, an indication (though not a proof) that the castle was on a new site. Henry II. was a great builder of stone keeps, but he seldom placed them on artificial mottes.
It is no uncommon thing to find an old motte-and-bailey castle abandoned for a better or larger site close at hand.8
The bailey of the second castle, according to Hasted, extended almost to the Dane John, which is about 800 feet from the present keep. The part of the older castle which lay outside the new city bank was possessed by a family of the name of Chiche from the time of Henry II. to that of Edward IV., while the
1 Close Rolls, i., 234b, ii., 7b, 89.
? Now, to the disgrace of the city of Canterbury, converted into gasworks.
3 For instance, at Middleham, Rochester, Rhuddlan, and Morpeth.
Dungeon Hill itself remained royal property. That the new bank was Henry II.'s work we may conjecture from the passages in the Pipe Rolls, which show that between the years 1166 and 1173 he spent about £30 in enclosing the city of Canterbury and making a gate. We are therefore not without grounds for concluding that Henry II. was the first to enlarge the city by taking in the Dane John, cutting through the ancient bailey, and at the same time enclosing a piece of land for a new stone castle. The very small sum paid for the city gate (11s., equal to about kun of our money) suggests that the gate put up by Henry II. was a wooden gateway in the new stockaded bank.
The stone walls and towers which were afterwards placed on the bank are of much later date than his reign.
1 Beauties of England and Wales, Kent, p. 893.
* The passages from the Pipe Roll bearing on this subject (which have not been noticed by any previous historian of Canterbury) are as follows :1166-7. In operatione civitatis Cantuar. claudendæ
$5 196 Ad claudendam civitatem Cantuar. 1167-8. Pro claudenda civitate Cantuar. .
5 1168-9. In terris datis Adelizæ filie Simonis 15 solidos de tribus annis pro escambio terræ suæ quæ est in Castello de Cantuar,
o 15 1172-3. In operatione turris ejusdem civitatis In operatione predicte turris
53 6 8 Summa denariorum quos vicecomes misit in operatione turris 73 4 1173-4. In operatione turris et Castelli Chant.
24 6 In operatione turris Cantuar.
7 1174-5. Et in warnisione ejusdem turris
The latter extract, which refers to the provisioning of the keep, seems to show that it was then finished. The sums put down to the castle, amounting to about £4000 of our money, are not sufficient to defray the cost of so fine a keep. But the entries in the Pipe Rolls relate only to the Sheriff's accounts, and it is probable that the cost of the keep was largely paid out of the revenues of the archbishopric, which Henry seized into his own hands during the Becket quarrel.
3 The portion of the wall of Canterbury, which rests on an earthen bank, extends from Northgate to the Castle, and is roughly semicircular in plan. In the middle of it was St George's Gate, which was anciently called Newingate (Gostling, p. 53) and may possibly have been Henry II.'s new
The Dungeon Hill appears to have been used for the last time as a fortification in 1643, when ordnance was placed upon it, and it was ordered to be guarded by the householders. In 1790 it was converted into a pleasure-ground for the city; the wide and deep ditch which had surrounded it was filled up, and serpentine walks cut to lead up to the summit. Brayley says that “the ancient and venerable character of this eminence was wholly destroyed by incongruous additions." Still, enough remains to show that it was once a very fine motte, such as we might expect the Conqueror to raise to hold in check one of the most important cities of his new realm.
The value of Canterbury had increased from 511. to 541. since the days of King Edward."
CARISBROOKE, Isle of Wight (Fig. 11). —There can be no doubt that this is the castle spoken of in Domesday Book under the manor of Alwinestone. Carisbrooke is in the immediate neighbourhood of Alvington. The language in which the Survey speaks of this manor is worthy of note. The king holds Alwinestone : Donnus held it. It then paid geld as two and a half hides : now as two hides, because the castle sits in one virgate.”8 Certain entries similar to this in other places seem to indicate that there was some remission of geld granted on the building of a castle ;* but as here the king was himself the owner, the remission must have been granted to his tenants.
gate. The part enclosing the Dungeon Hill is angular, and appeared to Mr Clark, as well as to Somner and Hasted, to have been brought out at this angle in order to enclose the hill. 1 Arch. Journ., 1856.
2 D. B., i., 2a, 1. 3 “Isdem rex tenet Alwinestone. Donnus tenuit. Tunc pro duabus hidis et dimidia. Modo pro duabus hidis, quia castellum sedet in una virgata." D. B., i., 2a, 1.
4 See below, under Windsor.
The original castle of Carisbrooke consists of a high motte, ditched round, placed at the corner of a parallelogram with rounded corners. This bailey, covering 21 acres, is surrounded by high banks, which testify to the former presence of a
of a wooden stockade. There is another bailey on the eastern side, called the Tilt-yard. The excellent little local guide - book compiled by Mr Stone calls this a British camp, but there is no reason to believe that it was anything else than what it appears to be—a second bailey added as the castle grew in importance. On the motte is a shell of polygonal form, of rubble masonry, but having quoins of well-dressed ashlar. It is believed to be of the time of Henry I., since the author of the Gesta Stephani states that Baldwin de Redvers, son of Richard de Redvers, to whom Henry granted the lordship of the Isle of Wight, had a castle there splendidly built of stone, defended by a strong fortification. This would indicate that, besides the stone keep, stone walls were added to the earthworks of the Domesday castle. The keep is of peculiar interest, as it still retains the remains of the old arrangements in keeps of this style, though of much later date. The motte was opened in 1893, and was found to be composed of alternate layers of large and small chalk rubble. Little attention has hitherto been paid to the construction of these Norman mottes, but other instances have been noted which show that they were often built with great care.
The whole castle, including the Tilt-yard, was surrounded with an elaborate polygonal fortification in Elizabeth's reign, when the Spanish invasion was expected.
1 "In hac [insula] castellum habebat ornatissimum lapidum' ædificio constructum, validissimo munimine firmatum.” Gesta Stephani, R. S., p. 28.
2 Stone's Official Guide to the Castle of Carisbrooke, p. 39.
The value of the manor of Alvington had increased at the time of the Survey, though the number of ploughs employed had actually decreased. This increase must have been owing to the erection of the castle, which provided security for trade and agriculture. Alvington was not the centre of a large soke in the Confessor's time, so it is unlikely that there was any fortification there in Saxon days.
Carlisle, Cumberland (Fig. 12).—This castle was built by William Rufus in 1092, when for the first time Cumberland was brought under Norman sway. The AngloSaxon Chronicle says, “he repaired the burh, and reared the castle," a passage which is sufficient of itself to show that burh and castle were two quite different things. Carlisle of course was a Roman fortress, and needed only the repairing of its walls. The castle was a new thing, and was placed outside the city. Its plan, which is roughly a triangle, with the apex formed into a small court by a ditch which (formerly) separated it from the bailey, looks very suggestive of a previous motte and bailey, such as we might expect the Norman king to have thrown up.
. The keep is known to have been built by David, king of Scotland, in Stephen's reign, and it is possible that he may have removed the motte. The castle appears to have had a wooden pelum or palicium on its outer banks as late as 1319. The whole area covers 4 acres.
1 Mr W. H. Stevenson, in his edition of Asser, pp. 173, 174, shows that the name Carisbrooke cannot possibly be derived from Wihtgares-burh, as has been sometimes supposed, as the older forms prove it to have come from brook, not burh. The lines of the present castle banks, if produced, would not correspond with those of the Tilt-yard, which is proof that the Norman castle was not formed by cutting an older fortification in two.
2 Bower's Scotochronicon, v., xlii. Cited by Mr Neilson, Notes and Queries, viii., 321. See also Palgrave, Documents and Records, i., 103.
3 Cal. of Close Rolls, Edward II., iii., 161.