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the castle. This remarkable keep is nearly circular, and has three round turrets and one oblong. As the latter, Thorpe's Tower, was rebuilt in Edward III.'s reign, it probably took the place of a round tower. The keep is built of rubble, and its Norman buttresses (it has several later ones) project about a foot. The cross loopholes in the walls are undoubtedly insertions of the time of Edward III. The buildings in the bailey are chiefly of the time of Edward III., but the bailey walls have some Norman buttresses, and are probably of the same date as the keep. This bailey is nearly square, and the motte, which is in one corner, encroaches upon about a quarter of it. The small size of the area which it encloses, not much more than half an acre, corresponds to the statement of Domesday Book that it was "a little castle." There is no trace of the usual ditch surrounding the motte, and the smallness of the bailey makes it unlikely that there ever was one. A second bailey has been added to the first, and the whole is surrounded on three sides by a moat, the fourth side having formerly had a steep descent into swamps, which formed sufficient protection.

There is no statement in the Survey of the value of Ness, but the whole manor of Berkeley had risen since the Conquest.*

BERKHAMPSTEAD, Herts (Fig. 9).- Mr D. H. Montgomerie rightly calls this a magnificent example of

1 From information received from Mr Duncan Montgomerie.

2 Fosbroke's History of Gloucester attributes this bailey to Maurice, son of Robert Fitzhardinge. One of the most interesting features in this highly interesting castle is the wooden pentice leading from the main stairway of the keep to the chamber called Edward II.'s. Though a late addition, it is a good instance of the way in which masonry was eked out by timber in medieval times.

3 Clark, M. M. A., i., 229.

4 D. B., i., 163.


an earthwork fortress.1 It is first mentioned in a charter of Richard I., which recapitulates the original charter of William, son of Robert, Count of Mortain, in which he gives the chapel of this castle to the Abbey of Grestein in Normandy. We may, therefore, with all probability look upon this as one of the castles built by the Conqueror's half-brother. And this will account for the exceptional strength of the work, which comprises a motte 40 feet high, ditched round (formerly), and a bailey of 2 acres, surrounded not only with the usual ditch and banks, but with a second ditch outside the counterscarp bank, which encircles both motte and bailey. At two important points in its line, this counterscarp bank is enlarged into mounds which have evidently once carried wooden towers; if this arrangement belonged to the original plan, as it most probably did, it confirms a remark which we have made elsewhere as to the early use of wooden mural towers. Works in masonry were added to the motte and the bailey banks in the 12th, 13th, and 14th centuries. There are traces of a semicircular earthwork outside the second ditch on the west, which appears to have formed a barbican. But the most exceptional thing about this castle is the series of earthen platforms on the north and east, connected by a bank, and closely investing the external ditch, which were formerly supposed to form part of the castle works. Mr W. St John Hope has suggested the far more plausible theory that they were the siege platforms erected by Louis, the Dauphin of France, in 1216. We are

1 Victoria County History of Herts, from which the description of these earthworks is entirely taken.

2 Mon. Ang., vii., 1090.

3 They were excavated by Mr Montgomerie in 1905, and no trace of masonry was found.



told that his engines kept up a most destructive fire of stones.1

The value of the manor of Berkhampstead had considerably decreased, even since the Count of Mortain received it.2

BISHOP'S STORTFORD, Herts (Fig. 9).-Waytemore Castle is the name given to the large oval motte at this place, which is evidently the site of the castle of "Estorteford," given by William the Conqueror to Maurice, Bishop of London. The manor of Stortford had been bought from King William by Maurice's predecessor, William, who had been one of the Norman favourites of Edward the Confessor. He may have built this castle, but he cannot have built it till after the Conquest, as the land did not belong to his see till then.

"The castle consists of a large oval motte, 250 x 200 feet at its base, rising 40 feet above the marshes of the river Stort, and crowned by a keep with walls of flint rubble, 12 feet thick. On the S. of the motte there are traces of a pentagonal bailey, covering 2 acres. It is enclosed on four sides by the narrow streams which intersect the marshes. The dry ditch on the fifth side, facing the motte, is discernible. The castle abuts on the road called The Causeway, which crosses the valley; it is in a good position to command both road and river." The value of the manor had gone down at Domesday.

BOURN, Lincolnshire (Fig. 10).—The manor of Bourn

1 Roger of Wendover, 1216.

2 D. B., i., 163.

3 The charter, which is in both Anglo-Saxon and Latin, is given in Dugdale's History of St Paul's, 304.

4 See Freeman, ii., 356; and D. B., i., 134a.

5 From report by Mr D. H. Montgomerie.

• Waytemore has sometimes been identified with the puzzling Wigginga

mere, but in defiance of phonology.

or Brune appears to have been much split up amongst various owners at the time of Domesday. A Breton named Oger held the demesne.1 A charter of Picot, the Sheriff of Cambridgeshire, a person often mentioned in Domesday Book, gives the church of Brune and the chapel of the castle to the priory which he had founded near the castle of Cambridge-afterwards removed to Barnwell. Bourn was the centre of a large soke in Anglo-Saxon times. Leland mentions the "Grete Diches, and the Dungeon Hill of the ancient Castel,' but very little of the remains is now visible, and the motte has been almost removed.


"The castle lies in flat ground, well watered by springs and streams. The motte was placed at the southern apex of a roughly oval bailey, from which it was separated by its own wet ditch, access being obtained through a gatehouse which stood on the narrow neck by which this innermost enclosure, at its N.W. end, joined the principal bailey, which, in its turn, was embraced on all sides but the S. by a second and concentric bailey, also defended by a wet ditch, which broadens out at the S.W. corner into St Peter's Pool. There is another enclosure beyond this which may be of later date. The inner bailey covers 3 acres. Very little is now left of the motte, but a plan made in 1861 showed it to be fairly perfect, and some slight remains of the gatehouse were excavated in that year. The castle is on the line of the Roman road from Peterborough to Sleaford, and close to the Roman CarDyke.'

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The value of Bourn had risen at Domesday.

1 D. B., i., 351b.

2 M. A., vi., 86.

4 Associated Archeological Societies, VI., ix. 6 Report by Mr D. H. Montgomerie.

3 Itin., i., 27.

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