« PreviousContinue »
leaves the furnace, after which it is passed through the rolls in the usual manner.
The engraving represents Stenson and Co.'s Patent Welding Hammer, as used at the Patent Iron Scrap Forge-Works, Northampton.
A A is the reverberatory furnace, in which the iron is heated previous to being rolled into finished bars. B the furnace-door, which is lifted by a lever. c the patent hammer, resting upon a catch, d. E a lifting-rod, which is in constant motion, and provided with a catch for lifting the hammer by means of the stud at F. G a stay which carries the friction roller, 1; this roller is the fulcrum on which the edge of the lifting-rod, E,
I vibrates. The lifting rod is pressed up to the roller by means of the spring, J. , a vertical stay from the top of the furnace to a beam overhead, which carries the driving-pulley, levers, &c. K, a cast-iron block, about 12 inches square and 2 feet high, supporting an anvil, the face of which is level with the heating-floor of the furnace. L, a vertical lever, the lower end working in a joint, and the upper end made to vibrate when pushed back by the sliding bolt, o, and brought back to its place by the spring. M, a slide working between two guards, m m, and lifted by means of the lever, n. When the door, B, is raised, and a pile of fire brought out of
n the furnace upon an anvil, the slide, m, is lifted, and is then pushed back by the bolt, o, by which the catch, d, is also thrown back, and the hammer immediately falls upon the pile as it is drawn from the mouth of the furnace, and strikes one, two, or more blows, as may be required, until the slide, m, is allowed to fall below the action of the bolt, o, when the hammer, c, again rests upon the catch, d, until the next pile is drawn.
Hammers of various weights are used, according to the size of the iron in course of nranufacture; a head of 50 pounds being found sufficient for small piles, while one of 200 or 300 pounds is necessary when making large iron. In the works of the patentees, who manufacture from scrapiron—which, from its more fibrous character and greater toughness, requires more hammering than that of the ordinary quality as puddled from pig-iron—this large weight is always employed. The effect is produced by simple means, and the machinery is propelled by the steam engine which drives the rolling mill. The hammer, when at work, has a fall or compass of about 2 feet 6 inches, which is found to be sufficient.
Not only is a sound weld secured, but a considerable saving is effected in the manufacture by the use of this hammer; as the pile, being struck while at its greatest heat, is rendered into a solid mass, which prevents the over-drawing during the process of rolling into bars, and thus saves the greater part of the waste usual in cropping the rough ends at the shears.
For the Journal of the Franklin Institute. Description of the Steam Fire Engine at Cincinnati. The following description of the Cincinnati steam fire engine has been communicated for the Journal by T. W. Bakewell
, Esq., who obtained it from Mr. A. B. Latta, the builder. We believe no previous authentic account has been published of this machine, which has excited considerable notice, and is probably destined to play an important part in the protection of buildings from fire.
Com. Pub. This machine has been in operation since the 1st of January, 1853, and has proven itself successful beyond all doubt, although the project has been tried before, and set down as impracticable, because it requires a machine that can be brought into operation as soon as hand apparatus. This, with other objections, such as running over rough streets, laying on uneven ground when at work, running up and down hill, and a host of other objections, have been causes for abandoning the use of steam heretofore; but these objections have been completely set aside by the operation of this machine. The first thing of importance in this engine is the principle of generating steam, which is a very old principle, but has not been properly understood heretofore. It is the same that is now being projected by a Frenchman, which he calls a serpentine boiler, which is a con
tinuous pipe coiled spirally or otherwise, so as to let the fire have a chance to surround it; the water being injected, it is instantly converted into steam; this accounts for the short time it requires to raise steam. This machine resembles a locomotive in some respects; it has cylinders on both sides, placed like those of a locomotive, the pumps being directly forward of the steam cylinders; the piston rods run directly out of the steam cylinders, and enter the pumps; the engines are so arranged as to couple to the driver at pleasure; this is done in order to drive the machine by steam when desired, and to hold back when going down hill, or assist in going up; this is an important consideration; the drivers resemble those of a six wheel locomotive, being aft of the fire box; the forward end of this machine runs on one wheel and revolves round like that of the velocipede, by which means the machine can be turned any where in the length of itself. Another reason why it should only have three wheels is, that its bearings are like those of a three-legged stool; it always comes to a bearing, without straining or twisting the machine; the perfect adaptedness of this combination to suit the circumstances, is the cause of its success. This machine is constructed of iron and brass, except the wheels, which are partly of wood. I believe the worst throwing it has ever made was when it was brought out to throw before the Hope Hose Co. of Philadelphia; I believe it only threw 160 feet; the greatest throw it has ever made is 240 ft. from the end of the nozzle to where the solid body of water fell, through a 14 inch nozzle; and 291 ft.to where the spray fell. This machine will discharge about 2000 barrels of water in one hour. It throws from one to six streams of water, and has two suctions 6.5 inches in diameter, and 24 feet long; each one is in one piece; these are always attached to the engine; they cross each other in front, and lay back on either side; this is a very important improvement, and a saving of time and labor in at. taching the suctions. The time required to put this machine in operation is five minutes; it requires four men and four horses to operate it, and will do as much as six of the largest class hand apparatus. This will give the reader an opportunity of estimating the economy in the use of steam for this purpose. Any further information can be obtained concerning it, by addressing A. B. Latta, who is the projector and builder of this machine, at Cincinnati.
Now, by way of illustration, we may notice its performance at one fire, to show the effect produced by this machine, compared with that by the hand apparatus. A fire occurred on the 20th of May, 1853, on Twelfth and Main streets, at 3 o'clock P. M.; the alarm was given, the steam engine ran eight squares, laid her hose, which was one square from the fire, and put the first water on the fire, which was all done in about five minutes; the hand apparatus, notwithstanding there were some of them stationed only two squares from the fire, were not at work until the steam engine was under way. In eight and a half hours' work (making due allowance for waste of water, she poured into the fire about 15,000 barrels of water; it was a large brewery with sale cellar; the wind was high, and nothing but a cataract of water could bave saved the entire square from destruction. This will show what can be done with steam in putting out fires. Arrangements are now making for four more of these machines by the Chief Engineer of the fire department. This will give the fire department of Cincinnati the greatest strength of any in the Union.
A Full-Grown Gasometer. Some few years since several of the most "eminent engineers” of the day gave evidence before a Parliamentary committee to the effect, that a gasometer of greater diameter than 35 feet would be very dangerous; and recommended that in all cases where this limit was approached, a series of strong walls should be built round the gasholder, in order to lessen the injury which the almost inevitable “explosion” might entail. Although practical men subsequently proved such an idea to be chimerical, no one, that we recollect of, has attempted to make a gasometer at all approaching in size to one described in the Wolverhampton Chronicle as having been lately manufactured at Smethwick. Its diameter is 165 feet. By bringing a recent patent to bear upon its construction, the makers have affected a saving of 20001. in raw material, through the absence of the heavy iron frame work which usually supports the roof (if we may so call it) of a gasometer. The top is quite flat, experience having proved that with a certain mode of construction all internal support is superfluous. This gigantic gasometer is intended for the Sheffield Consumers' Gas Company. The manufacturers, Messrs. Horton, are also engaged in manufacturing telescopic gas-holders on a new principle (the subject of another new patent), by which still further economy, it is said, in labor and material is insured. - London Builder, No. 532.
REMARKS.-- The eminent engineers spoken of above must be relatives of the one who swore before a Coronor's Jury, that he recollected distinctly that the explosion of the "big gun," killed Mr. Jefferson. The gas holder of the Philadelphia Gas Works erected in 1850 is 140 feet in diameter and 74 feet high, built on the telescopic principle of course. (See Journal of the Franklin Institute 3d. Ser., Vol. xxi, p. 292). The gas holder now in process of construction at the new works is 160 feet in diameter, and 90 feet high, with a top nearly flat, having only rise enough to carry off the water, and without the usual framing and rafters for sustaining the crown. From the brief description of the Sheffield holder, we should think the two almost identical in construction.
For the Journal of the Franklin Institute.
Steam Boiler Explosion at Covington, Ohio. Our correspondent at Cincinnati, Ohio, under date of May 31st, 1853, says: "The boiler explosion at a Rolling Mill near Covington, presents no feature of special interest. The boiler was cylindrical, 34 inches diameter, (no flue,) wrought boiler plate end, turned at a sharp angle round the edge to form a flanch. The boiler had been leaky at this edge for some time previous, and at the time of explosion was parted from the boiler at the angle all round, converting the boiler into a rocket-like projectile, which flew about 400 feet, and fell into the river. The end shows the character of the rupture.”
For the Journal of the Franklin Institute.
United States Auxiliary Screw Steamship Massachusetts. By B. F. ISHER
wood, Chief Engineer, United States Navy. The Massachusetts was originally built for a steam packet to ply between New York and Liverpool, but not proving a satisfactory speculation, she was next sent to the East Indies, and on her return, the Mexican war being in progress, was sold to the army for a transport. After the treaty of peace she was transferred to the Navy Department, and sent to the Pacific on the California cost, whence she has just returned to Norfolk, Virginia. The abstract of her logs, hereinafter given, comprises the whole of her performance while belonging to the Navy.
The Massachusetts was originally designed for purely an auxiliary steam power, to be used only in calms, and when the wind was so light as to give the vessel with sails alone a less speed than 5 knots per hou With this design, it was necessary to arrange the screw so that it could be hoisted out of the water when the vessel was not under steam. This was accomplished in the manner hereinafter described.
The machinery of the Massachusetts was designed by Captain John Ericsson, and cost $24,000. The entire original cost of the vessel, including machinery, was $80,000.
When transferred to the Navy, the Massachusetts was fitted with Ericsson's surface condenser, in addition to an ordinary jet condenser kept ready for use when the other was out of order. This surface condenser answered very well for a time, producing a tolerable vacuum and furnishing the boiler with a sufficient supply of fresh water, the loss by leakage &c., which was trifling, being easily supplied by an evaporator. This condenser was essentially the same as Hall's, from which it only differed by the position of the condensing tubes, which were vertical in Hall's, and slightly inclined from the horizontal in Ericsson's. It was found that the very thin tubes composing the condensing surface in the Massachusetts, were, though of copper, rapidly corroded out by the sea water, honeycombing over the whole surface; the surface condenser was therefore removed from the vessel, and the steaming recorded in the logs was done with the ordinary jet condenser. The following are the dimensions of the vessel, machinery, &c. HULL.
Length on keel,
358-4 sq. feet. Rig.- The Massachusetts is ship rigged, and spreads 21,082 square feet of canvass in the principal sails. Her rig is what is known as
31 32 20 23 15 16 15