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the action of the surrounding air on deflectors combined with the sides of the car, substantially as specified, and operating on the principle set forth."


1. For a Parlor Stove; James H. Conklin, City of New York, Assignor to William P. Cresson, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; February 1; ante-dated December 13, 1852. Claim. "I do not claim the peculiar form of this stove, or any of the ornaments separately; but what I do claim is, the combination and arrangement of the ornamental forms and figures represented in the accompanying drawings, and forming together an ornamental design for a parlor stove."

2. For a Sewing Bird; Charles Waterman, Meriden, Conn., February 15.

Claim. "What I claim is, the design herein represented by the feathered bird upon the wing, bearing a burden upon its back."

3. For a Cradle; Alexander Edmonds, Mount Pulaski, Illinois, February 22.

Claim. "What I claim as my production is, the design and configuration of the ornaments above described and set forth, forming together an ornamental design for a horological cradle."


1. For an Improvement in Bedstead Fastenings; Asa N. & Alden Case, Gustavus, O. Claim. "We do not claim the pawl and ratchet as our invention; but what we do claim as new and our improvement is, the combination of the inclined plane, and head, with the pawl and ratchet, for the purpose of fastening bedsteads and tightening the cord, in the manner specified."

2. For an Improvement in Swiveled Nibbed Keys for Door Locks; Augustus C. Harig, Louisville, Kentucky.

Claim.-"I am aware that the nib of the key has been fitted into the tubular shank, and so secured therein by a pin fitting into a groove, that the burglar's instrument when applied to the nib would rotate it without moving the key, and in connexion therewith; I am also aware that the key, by a plate attached to the inner lock plate, has been held, so that it could not be rotated; and I therefore do not claim these devices. But what I do claim as of my invention is, the guard bit attached to the swivel nib, in combination with the ordinary bit and shank of the key, constructed and operating substantially as herein set forth."

3. For Improvements in Rotary Steam Engines; James McKay, Philadelphia, Pa.

Claim. "What I claim as my invention is, the passages for the exhaust steam, arranged so that they shall cover and encircle the entire periphery of the stationary cylinder, and have their ingress and egress openings so arranged as to cause the exhaust steam, as it escapes, to envelop the whole surface of the cylinder, as described. In combination with the ordinary valves and parts which form a passage for the steam to and from the engine, I claim the supplemental exhaust parts and valves, which act in conjunction with the ordinary exhaust valves, whereby a free egress for the exhaust steam is afforded, without leaving large open passages for the steam to waste in. I also claim the combination of the sliding pistons with self-adjusting valves and steam ways, which admit a portion of the steam that propels the piston, behind its inner end, to act as a spring to press it out into the steam space, whichever way the engine may be turning. I also claim mounting or hanging the two cylinders on radial and axial journals, respectively arranged in a common plane, and at right angles to each other, whereby the two cylinders can accommodate themselves to each other, so as to avoid binding, substantially as herein set forth." 4. For an Improved Machine for making Axes; Jonas Simmons, Cohoes, New York.

Claim."I do not claim the employment of rolling dies for shaping an axe; but I claim the arrangement of the devices above mentioned for making axes, viz: rolling dies, with a rest bar to support the iron whilst being rolled, and an eye bar, arranged not only to serve as a mandrel to shape the eye of the axe, but with the rest bar to hold the iron firm during the process of rolling, the rest bar and eye bar being connected with the machinery to give them appropriate movements, to cause them to co-operate with the rolls in shaping the axe, and these parts further in combination with a scarfing bar, for the purpose of shaping the blade to receive the steel point, in order to complete the axe, substantially as the same is set forth in the within specification."

5. For an Improved Supplemental Valve in Reciprocating Steam Engines; Charles A. Spring, Kensington, Pennsylvania.

Claim. "What I claim as my invention is, the arrangement of a valve in the lid of the steam chest, or the equivalent thereof, between the cylinder of a steam engine and the boiler, in such manner that it will prevent the reflux of the lead steam, by closing whenever the pressure of the steam in the engine exceeds that in the boiler, and opening again whenever the pressure in the boiler is greater, substantially as herein set forth."

6. For an Improvement in Looms; William Townshend, Hinsdale, Massachusetts.

Claim. "I do not claim actuating the pickers by the backward motion of the lay alone; but what I do claim is, 1st, The cam wheel i, on the chain shaft 31, right angle lever l', and staples or slide bolts 36 and 37, combined and acting as described and shown, to bring the picking motion into operation alternately on each side, by the backward motion of the lay, as specified. 28, I claim actuating the picker staffs by the lay, on its backward motion, by means of the vibrating studs, when combined with levers 40 and 45, attached to the swords of the lay, and bent levers m and m', the whole arranged and combined in the manner described. 3d, I claim the levers o2 and o3, connected together by the adjustable pin, so as to give greater or less motion to the selvage warp, when actuated by the cam o, as described and shown. 4th, I claim the apron or straps 62, connected to the bar s, and kept to the cloth by the proper weight or power, so as to cause sufficient friction to wind the cloth on the cloth beam, when said apron and bar are moved or actuated from the lay or otherwise, so as to produce the effects herein described and shown." 7. For an Improvement in Bedstead Fastenings; E. Sumner Taylor, Cleveland, Ohio.

Claim. "I do not claim separately the pawl and ratchet, nor a continuous right and left hand thread or screw; but what I do claim as my improvement is, the combination of the pawl and ratchet with the spiral grooved sections attached to the tenons, arranged and applied in the manner and for the purpose herein specified, namely, the tenons of one side rail and one end rail being furnished with the plates having the spiral groove turning to the right and left as described, turning in the direction of the arrows, and making a tight joint with the post; the other side and end rails having on their tenons a groove, passing around the tenon at right angles to the axis, and fitting the pins as described, so that by having one side of the tenon on each end, flattened, to enable it to pass the pin, in order to allow it to enter the groove, when, by turning in either direction less than a complete revolution, the pin fitting into the groove prevents the posts and rails from separating; and by attaching the ratchets to the end of this side rail and one end of the end rail, with the pawls attached to the posts as specified, by tightening of the cord, put on in the manner described; the whole frame of the bedstead is held firmly together by the combined action of all the parts described, one end rail and one side rail remaining stationary, the other end rail and side rail turning as described, for the purpose of tightening the cord, both being secured by the pawl and ratchet."

8. For an Improvement in the Construction of Curry Combs; William Wheeler, Troy, New York.

Claim. "What I claim as new is, the application of a ring, loop, or fixture on curry combs, for the insertion of a thumb as a guard and rest therefor, the ring or loop being made in one piece with the back strap, as set forth."

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Proceedings of the Stated Monthly Meeting, March 17, 1853.

Samuel V. Merrick, President, in the chair.

Thomas Fletcher, Vice President.

John F. Frazer, Treasurer.

Isaac B. Garrigues, Recording Secretary.

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved.

Donations to the Library were received from The Royal Astronomical Society, London; L. Lea, Esq., United States Commissioner of Indian

Affairs, Hon. David Dale Owen, United States Geologist, Hon. Joseph R. Chandler, United States Congress, and The Smithsonian Institution, Washington City, D. C.; Dr. W. T. G. Morton, and George C. Rand, Esq., Boston, Massachusetts; William J. McAlpine, Albany, New York; the American Institute, City of New York; The Young Men's Mercantile Library Association, Cincinnati, Ohio; and from Messrs. A. Hart, Solomon W. Roberts, Birkinbine & Trotter, A. B. Hutton, Dr. Thomas S. Kirkbride, Chas. E. Smith, Harvey Tuckett, and Dr. B. Howard Rand, Philadelphia. Donations to the Cabinet from The Brooklyn Flint Glass Company, New York; Dr. L. Turnbull, and Edward Miller, Esq., Philadelphia. The Periodicals received in exchange for the Journal of the Institute were laid on the table.

The Treasurer read his statement of the receipts and payments for the month of February."

The Board of Managers and Standing Committees reported their minutes.

The Actuary reported the organization of the Board of Managers, and the Standing Committees for the ensuing year, by the election of their chairmen and appointing the time for holding their stated meetings, as follows:

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New candidates for membership in the Institute (3) were proposed, and the candidates (6) proposed at the last meeting were duly elected. Dr. Rand, Chairman of the Committee on Meetings, exhibited and described Mr. James J. Clark's self-winding telegraph register.

In this instrument the moving power of the drum on which the paper is coiled, is a spring, instead of a weight, as in the ordinary register. This spring, which is coiled on the shaft of the drum, is maintained at a constant tension, by means of a galvanic battery attached to the apparatus; a break circuit wheel is connected with the drum; each time the circuit is completed an electro magnet fixed on the base of the instrument attracts its armature, which is attached to one end of a lever, at the other end of which is a pawl which moves a ratchet wheel forward one tooth. The motion of this rachet wheel is communicated to the shaft of the drum, upon which the spring is coiled. The whole is so adjusted that the spring shall thus be wound up as fast as it runs down in turning the drum, and a perfect uniformity in the motion of the latter is secured. The tension of the spring may be altered in a few moments, without interfering with the action of the instrument.

(A detailed description of this apparatus will be published in a future number.)

Dr. Rand also exhibited Billings and Ambrose's carriage axle. The axle is grooved near its outer end; into the groove two sliding plates having a

horizontally projecting tooth upon the outer end of each, and compressed in grooves in the outer end of the hub, are slipped. The teeth upon the end of these plates are confined in grooves cut spirally in the face of a cam plate, in such a way that by turning the said plate in one direction or the other, the said shifting plates are forced in or withdrawn, and so form the connexion between the hub and the axle. Over the end of the hub is a covering cap, through the centre of which is a hole for the insertion of a key into the aforesaid cam; so that while the end of the hub is covered, the simple rotating movement of this key locks or unlocks the wheel and the axle.

Frederick Graff, Esq., Superintendent of the Fairmount Water Works, presented a portion of the wooden boiler in use at the works, in Centre Square, from 1801 to 1814, and which supplied steam for a forty horse power engine, carrying four and a half pounds pressure to the square inch. (Mr. Graff's description of this boiler will be found on pages 269-70-71.) G. W. Smith, Esq., suggested that some use might be made of the heat of the water discharged from the hot well of stationary condensing steam engines which at present runs to waste, by the introduction of a number of small thin tubes, into a box filled with this hot water; the atmosphere passing through these tubes would absorb much of the heat, and pass immediately into the closed ash pit, in a state suitable to facilitate combustion and economize the heated products; the expense of these tubes might preclude their adoption where fuel is cheap.

Mr. J. Vaughan Merrick admitted that some saving of fuel might be the result, but considered that as the difference in temperature between the water in the hot well and that of the atmosphere would not be great, so large an amount of surface would be required as to make it doubtful whether the first cost, or space required for such an apparatus, would be repaid. He alluded to the plan adopted by Prof. W. R. Johnson, in his experiments on coals, of compelling the air to pass through openings in the side walls of the boiler setting before reaching the grate, as being more feasible. In those experiments the air entered the grate at a temperature generally higher than 212°.

Mr. Smith also called the attention of the members to a drawing of a design for an ornamental stand pipe, by Messrs. Birkinbine & Trotter. Dr. C. M. Wetherill called the attention of the members to a modification of Kemp's thermostat.

A full description of this instrument will be published in a future number of the Journal.

Dr. Turnbull exhibited to the meeting a specimen of galmel or silicate of zinc, presented to the Institute by Edward Miller, Esq., obtained from Saucon Valley, Lehigh County, Penn'a. The crystals were small, tinted of a yellow color, associated with a portion of carbonate of zinc. It is a valuable ore of zinc, and is employed in the manufacture of brass. It could be used for preparing the zinc paint by precipitation, as it is readily soluble in acids, when the silica gelatinizes, and can be separated. It contains about 60 per cent. of metallic zinc.

Dr. Turnbull also brought to the notice of the meeting a specimen of magnetite, or magnetic oxide of iron, from Lake Superior. The ore was of a very fine quality; lustre, metallic; color, iron black; crystals, octahedral, mixed with garnet, which combination is considered highly ad

vantageous for the reduction of this variety of ore, granular ores often requiring no other flux.

Mr. Barlow exhibited a model of Mr. Parker's system for banding pulleys, as used for driving a circular saw. In this arrangement the power is communicated to the belt by friction between pulleys, instead of friction over the driving pulley as usual. On the driving shaft a large pulley is keyed; near the centre of this shaft is pivotted a frame, carrying at the other end a second pulley, smaller than the first, which approaches that of the driver as it is moved in the direction in which the power is exerted; between the circumference of these two the belt is compressed, and passing back around about one-fourth the periphery of the larger wheel, returns over the saw pulley, whose axis is as near as possible to that of the driver. By this arrangement the belt is tightened as the power is increased, and the space required is much less than by the common method, since the belt may be shortened to one-fourth the circumference of the driving pulley.

Geo. W. Smith, Esq., presented two dioptric fixed light apparatus for ship's lanterns, each cast in one piece of flint glass, at the Brooklyn Flint Glass Works, Long Island, New York. They are very economical, compared with the ground glass dioptric lanterns, and intercept less light, and might be advantageously used for many purposes, viz: for piers, signal stations, street lamps, &c. Mr. Smith reminded the meeting that a few years ago he had suggested a modification of the form of lens for fixed lights, viz: the substitution of the meniscus or concavo-convex form in section, in lieu of the ordinary plano-convex lens. The advantages he proposed thereby were, first, the more direct incidence of the light from the lamp on the glass, and the less loss by reflection; second, the less diameter, both above and below, of the aperture of the drum, which enables it to intercept a larger portion of the emitted sphere of light. A less number of catadioptric rings would be required, and those of a smaller diameter than usual. The meniscal drums were made at the same works in Brooklyn, and all the curves calculated there by one of the employees of the Company. Mr. Smith believed that they were the first constructed on this plan which he had suggested. They were presented by the Company through Mr. Gilliland.


Report on J. & J. Dilks' Improvement in a Gauge for indicating the height of Water in Steam Boilers.

The Committee on Science and the Arts, constituted by the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, for the promotion of the Mechanic Arts, to whom was referred for examination, an "Improvement in a Gauge for indicating the height of water in steam boilers," invented by Messrs. J. & J. Dilks, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania-REPORT: That an instrument similar in principle to this was formerly presented to the Committee for examination, by Mr. Jos. Dilks, and was favorably reported on. As it was feared by many, however, that the form of instrument then shown would be unfavorably influenced by the pressure of the steam on its slides, the Messrs. Dilks have modified it, and offer it in its present form. As now constructed, the gauge consists of a plug of brass, which passes through the head of the boiler, to which it is attached by a

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