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which the apple or other article is placed, the said handle having a pinion on it, which traverses the said rack and gives rotary motion to the fork, making the apple to revolve against the swinging spring knife, while the handle is pushed backwards and forwards in a horizontal direction by the operator, in the manner substantially as described, for the purpose set forth."

48. For an Improvement in the Frames of Piano Fortes; Jos. Piffaut, N. Orleans, La. "The nature of my invention consists in so constructing the metallic frames of piano fortes as that the inside frame, or that which supports the long bridge of the piano, may be raised or lowered at pleasure, and thus raise or lower the tone of the instrument, and at the same time keep up the general accord of the piano."

Claim. "Having fully described my invention, what I claim therein as new is, in combination with the metallic frame of a piano forte, the movable part which supports the bridge, and which is raised or lowered at pleasure by means of a key operating through the screws and levers, or their equivalents, for the purpose of raising or lowering the tone of the instrument, and at the same time preserving its accord, substantially as described." 49. For an Improvement in Sugar Draining Machines; Joseph W. Archibald, Porto Rico, West Indies, Assignor to Horace Southmayd, City of New York. Claim. "Having described the nature and operation of my invention, what I claim as new is, the employment of fibrous or flexible bag, made of cotton, linen, hair cloth, or any other substance, placed loosely or secured by loops, as described, in a centrifugal depurating sugar machine, inside of the wire gauze cylinder, and containing the sugar; said bag not being permanently attached to the machine, by any screw or clamp, &c., but to be freely placed in, and then lifted out of the machine entirely, when the sugar is depurated, for the purposes set forth."

50. For an Improved Gold Washer and Amalgamator; Abiather F. Potter, Boston, Mass. Claim. "What I claim as my invention is, 1st, A wheel, or its equivalent, arranged in the tube above mentioned, so as to be operated by the water containing the metals, &c., as it issues into or descends in the tube, so as to agitate the water, by the motion of the wheel, whether it is made to operate some other agitating apparatus or otherwise.

"2d, I also claim the openings, ƒ ƒ, or their equivalents, in combination with the openings, tt, or their equivalents, substantially as described, for giving such direction to the water as will move the mercury, in the manner and for the purposes set forth, substantially as described."

51. For an Improvement in Expanding Drills; Thomas Prosser, City of New York.

Claim.-"Having described several means of applying my invention, I do not profess to conform myself to any of them, as to the mere mode of operating the screw, and thereby causing the cutter to advance or expand simultaneously with the operation of cutting or drilling. What I claim is, the combination of the inclined cutter, with a screw cut thereon, bevel screw pinion, or its equivalent, and collar, arranged in the manner described, so that by holding said collar during the rotation of the drill, a continuous feed motion is communicated to the cutter."

52. For an Improvement in Omnibus Registers; Peter Taltavull, Washington, D. C.

Claim. "Having fully described my improved omnibus register, what I claim therein as new is, the spring, operated and arranged in combination with the inclined planes and escapement tube, in the manner and for the purpose substantially as herein described." 53. For an Improvement in Winnowers of Grain; Augustus B. Childs, Rochester, New York; patented in England, May 22, 1852.

Claim. "I claim the regulating of the blast for the second winnowing of grain, by combining with the revolving fan which generates both the first and second blast, and compensating safety valve, as herein set forth; but I make no claim to a spring valve in itself, as such a contrivance is well known for various purposes.

"I also claim the self-regulating valve, which prevents the admission of air into the machine while it opens to discharge the impurities separated from the grain, and thus prevents an undue accumulation of them at the bottom of the air chamber."

RR-ISSUES FOR JANUARY, 1853.

1. For an Improvement in Reaping Machines; Wm. F. Ketchum, Buffalo, New York; patented July 10th, 1847; re-issued 11th January, 1853.

Claim. "What I claim is, the crooked arm or coupling piece, separate or in combination with the cutter bar, whether both be composed of one, two, or more pieces. I also

claim attaching, supporting, and sustaining said cutter bar to the frame, relatively to the driving wheel, substantially as herein described and represented, and for the purpose set forth. I also claim the endless chain, sickled edged cutter, in combination with the pulleys and rack teeth, arranged and operating substantially as in the manner and for the purpose set forth."

DESIGNS FOR JANUARY, 1853.

1. For a Design for a Cooking Stove; Sherman S. Jewett and Francis H. Root, Buffalo, New York, January 25.

Claim. "What we claim as new is, the device "prairie flower," on the front plate; the arrangement and configuration of the floral device ornamenting the side door, consisting of a full blown central flower, stems, foliage, and pendant flowers, and the ornamental configuration of the smaller door, as herein represented and described."

2. For a Design for a Wood Stove; Sherman S. Jewett and Francis H. Root, Buffalo, New York, January 25.

Claim. "What we claim as new therein is, the configuration and arrangement of the ornamental device on the side plates of the stove, as represented and described. We also claim the ornamental design of the fire door, as represented and described. We likewise claim the ornamental configuration of the bottom plate, as described."

3. For a Design for a Cooking Stove; Sherman S. Jewett and Francis H. Root, Buffalo, New York, January 25.

Claim.-"What we claim as new therein is, the configuration and arrangement of the ornamental design of the plate, as shown and described."

4. For a Design for a Cooking Stove; Joseph G. Lamb, Cincinnati, Ohio, Assignor to Alexander Bradley, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, January 25.

Claim. "What I claim as new is, the arrangement and combination of the ornaments, mouldings, panelings, and shapes, into the above specified design for cooking stove, substantially as above shown."

5. For a Design for a Cooking Stove; Joseph Pratt, Assignor to Bowers, Pratt & Co., Boston, Massachusetts, January 25.

Claim.-"I claim the ornamental configuration or design, substantially as represented in the drawings, and as above described."

FEBRUARY 1ST.

1. For an Improvement in Machinery for Cutting Barrel Heads; Chas. B. Hutchinson, Waterloo, New York.

"My invention consists in the use of clamp rings to hold the wood for the head, and present it to be cut and dressed by rotating cutters; said cutters being arranged upon a rotating disk and arms, in a peculiar combination to be hereafter described in detail, in such a manner, that the head may be cut out, face dressed, and beveled or chamfered on the edge, by a single operation."

Claim. "In relation to the head turning apparatus, I am aware that there is nothing novel in the use of clamp rings as such, or of rotating cutting tools, such as flem knives, chamfering chisels, and face planers, set on disks or otherwise; but the peculiar combination and arrangement of all these, which I have adopted, I believe to be wholly novel and not heretofore used either for the purpose herein specified, or any other. What, therefore, I claim as new is, the use of clamp rings to hold the pieces of heading, and hung in bearings on opposite sides, or in any equivalent way, so as to be reversible, in combination with the adjustable rotating cutters to cut and bevel the edge of the head, and with the face cutters arranged upon the disk substantially as described, whereby the opposite sides of the head may be successively presented to the action of the cutting tools, and the head cut out, chamfered, and face dressed, or cut out and chamfered only, at one operation."

2. For an Improvement in Frames for Lanterns: Elijah F. Parker, Proctorsville, Vermont.

Claim. "I am aware that offsetts have been turned on the frames of lanterns, for holding the glass, &c., but the corner pieces are made up of two or more pieces soldered

together: this I do not claim: but what I do claim as my invention is, the turning of grooved or sunken flanches upon the frames of lanterns, so that when the top and bottom are united, the flanches for holding the glass, mica, or their equivalents, shall be already in place to receive them, without any further soldering, substantially as herein described."

3 For an Improved Screw Wrench; George B. Read, City of New York.

"The nature of my invention consists in having the shank of the adjustable jaw pass through a recess in the stationary jaw, which is attached by a pivot to the end of the wrench stock; the shank of the adjustable jaw is provided with a rack, into which a pawl attached to the end of the wrench stock catches."

Claim. "I do not claim having the jaw attached to a shank, and the shank passing through a recess in the jaw, independent of the mode of operating the jaws, for the above device, differently modified, as employed in various wrenches now in use; but what I claim as new is the arrangement of the several parts, as herein shown and described, viz: the jaw being attached by a pivot to the stock, and said jaw having a recess through it, through which recess the shank of the adjustable jaw passes-the shank being provided with a rack, into which a pawl attached to the end of the stock catches-said pawl being kept into the rack by the spring, by which arrangement, the two jaws are forced against the side of the nut, as the handle of the wrench is turned, and the jaws made to bear or bind harder upon or near the corners of the nut, thus preventing the jaws from slipping around it."

4. For an Improvement in Portable Gas Apparatus; William and Matthias Stratton, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

"The nature of our improvement consists in constructing a stove retort, and cooler, all arranged, so as to be portable, in the strict sense of the term, which may be used for the manufacture of illuminating gas from rosin or other suitable material."

Claim. "Having described our portable gas apparatus, what we claim as our invention is, in the construction of the stove, of removable gates in the ends for the introduction of the retort, and the movable section under the rosin holder, in the manner as set forth and shown."

5. For an Improvement in the Mode of Feeding Rosin in the Fires of Glass Furnaces; Benjamin Shiverick, North Sandwich, Massachusetts.

Claim. "I claim the combining the long conical valve and the discharge tube, by means of a set screw and nut and supporting spring, whereby the flow of the melted rosin may not only be regulated, but when any interruption takes place, the attendant can readily remove the same, either by lifting the valve or pressing on it, and such valve be subsequently moved back to its former position by the spring; this improvement being a very important one in the operation of the apparatus."

6. For an Improvement in Manufacture of Indian Rubber; Richard Solis, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

"The nature of my invention is the art of remanufacturing what is commonly known and called metallic, vulcanized, or insoluble rubber."

Claim. "I therefore claim as my invention the manufacture of india rubber fabrics by the mixture of ground or powdered vulcanized rubber, with the ordinary india rubber of commerce."

7. For an Improvement in Voltaic Batteries and Apparatus for Medical and other Purposes; Issac L. Pulvermacher, Breslau, Prussia; patented in Austria, Oct. 9, 1849. Claim."I do not claim, simply, making galvanic elements of negative and positive metals, with porous, non-conducting substance interposed, as in the well known galvanic pile; what I do claim as my invention is, constructing galvanic elements of positive and negative metals, separated from each other, by a porous, non-conducting substance, when the said porous, non-conducting substance is surrounded and held by one or both the said metals, substantially as specified and for the purpose specified. I also claim forming the galvanic elements, by coiling, in the form of helices, the positive and negative wires, in grooves, previously made in the surface of an inner core of wood, or other porous substance, substantially as specified, so that when the wires are wrapped around in the said grooves, they shall both be in contact with porous substance within, and separated from each other as specified. I also claim, forming a chain of a series of elements, substantially such as herein described, by means of ties or links, substantially as and for the purpose specified. And

finally, I claim the method of interrupting the current of electricity, by means of the spring vibrating conductor interposed, substantially as herein described, for the purpose of breaking and closing the circuit, by the movement of the human body, or other like motion, as set forth."

FEBRUARY 8TH.

8. For an Improvement in Purifying Fatty Matters: Jean Baptiste Moinier and Pierre Hyppolyte Boutigney, Paris, France; patented in France, November 14, 1849. Claim. "What we claim as our invention and discovery is, the introduction and mingling of a current or currents of sulphurous acid gas, with mixtures of fatty acids and alkalies, preparatory to the process of being converted into candles, tapers, and articles for burning, thereby rendering such mixtures of a superior quality, and causing them to burn with a stronger, clearer, and brighter light."

9. For an Improvement in Hot Air Furnaces; Nathaniel A. Boynton, Boston, Mass.

Claim. "I do not claim a hollow ring radiator, placed over and made to communicate with the chamber of combustion; but what I do claim is the hollow "wheel radiator," made with a hollow rim, hollow spokes, a hollow hub (open at top and bottom), and a valve and valve seat, so made and applied to the hub, that when the valve is closed, it shall cause the heat and volatile products of combustion to pass through one or more of the arms, and into and through the hollow rim, and thence out of the said rim, through the other arm or arms, and into the hub, and over the valve, and also, so that when the said valve is opened, the heat and volatile products of combustion may pass directly up through the hub, without first circulating through the hollow arms and rim, substantially as specified."

10. For Improved Arrangement of Centre Board and Rudder for Shoal Water Vessels; George Chase, Prudence Island, Rhode Island.

Claim. "I am aware that one rudder, made to slide within the other, and attached to centre board, has been used, so that one shall rise with the other; but in this case, there is no indication by which it can be known when the sliding rudder is up or down, and when used; thus I lay no claim to them; but what I do claim is, attaching the rear end of the movable centre board and the rudder to the sliding stern post, so that the said centre board, stern post, and rudder, may be raised or lowered together, substantially as described, and by which means, I only use a single rudder, whose position can always be known by the height of the stern post to which it is hung, as also that of the centre board; the sliding stern post serving as an indicator to the positions of both."

11. For an Improvement in Hanging Farm Gates; John Filson, Milroy, Penn.

Claim.—“What I claim as my invention is, the lower double jointed hinge, in combination with the apparatus attached to and constituting the upper hinge, for the purpose of holding the gate at any inclination required, for the purpose set forth."

12. For Improvements in Core Bars for Forming Cores for Casting Pipes; George Peacock, West Troy, New York.

"The nature of my invention consists in providing a lozenge shaped iron bar, having semicircular or other shaped wings or projections on its lower half; said bar, which I term the core bar, is fitted with a core box, and the sand packed and adjusted around it; the wings or semicircular projections binding the sand and causing it to adhere to the lower portion of the bar. The sand is placed over the upper portion of the bar, and rounded or shaped perfectly semicircular, by meansof a sweep. The bar, when properly encompassed by the sand, forms the core. The core bar may be so arranged, as to be adopted to form cores for elbows, branch pipes, &c., &c., and also be properly anchored, so as to allow pipes of any desired length to be cast."

Claim. "Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new is, the core bar, having transverse wings or projections of semi circular or other shape, corresponding to the shape of the article to be cast; said wings or projections permitting the sand to be rammed, for forming the lower half of the core, and holding or binding the sand to the lower part of the bar, and allowing the upper half of the core to be made by the sweep, as herein set forth. I also claim the manner of anchoring the core bar, viz: by means of the metal strips or bridges fitting in recesses in the upper surface of the core bar; said bridges resting upon wooden supports, and having anchor rods bearing upon their upper surfaces, the liquid metal burning out the wooden supports and allowing the core to be withdrawn, by which means the core is prevented from being raised or forced upward, by the liquid metals, as it is poured into the mould; and thus enabling pipes to be cast of any desired

length. I also claim the manner, substantially as herein described, of connecting or jointing the core bars, for forming cores for elbows or branch pipes, viz: by means of wooden wedges, which are the means of holding the bars together while the core is being formed; said wedges being burnt out by the liquid metal, when poured into the mould, and allowing the cores to be withdrawn."

13 For an Improvement in Moulds for Uniting Steel to Cast Iron; Charles Peters, Trenton, New Jersey.

Claim. "What I claim as my invention is, the use of a solid base to moulds, in which steel or wrought iron is to be welded to cast iron, with an aperture in the same, so that by means thereof, the said steel or wrought iron can be subjected to the heat of the furnace, while in the mould."

14. For an Improvement in Winnowers; George F. S. Zimmerman, Charlestown, Va. Claim. "Having fully described the construction, operation, and advantages of my improved threshing and cleaning machine, what I claim as new is, the invention, use, and application of the perforated vibrating table, arranged to a sloping bottom, or platforms, the parallel, saw like strips, or straw pushers, combined with an oscillating rake and straw beaters, or curved prongs; the whole combined and working with the oscillating hinged standard and suspending straps, as shown in diagram and substantially as set forth. I do not, however, claim the invention of a combined threshing, separating, and winnowing machine, but only such parts as are set forth in my specification."

15. For an Improvement in Gas Metres; Edward R. Hallam, and Thomas B. Barnard, Brooklyn, New York, Assignors to E. R. Hallam, New Haven, Connecticut. Claim. "What we claim as our invention is, the within described method of constructing metres, with one cylinder working within another, so that the gas passes alternately into the inner cylinder and out of the space above it, and then out of the inner cylinder, while the supply enters the space above it; the gas being changed in its course or direction, by valves, as herein described."

16. For an Improvement in Surgical Instruments for Examining the Ear, &c., H. Le Riemondie, of New Orleans, Louisiana; ante-dated October 23, 1852. "The object of my invention is so to construct such an instrument, that the part to be examined, is seen by light reflected upon it from the interior of the instrument.'

Claim. "What I claim as my invention is, the construction of an instrument for examining the interior of the ear, nose, eye, or other part of the human system, by the combination of the reflectors, the lens, case, tubes, and lamp, substantially in the manner herein specified."

MECHANICS, PHYSICS, AND CHEMISTRY.

On the Physical Lines of Magnetic Force. By Prof. FARADAY.* On a former occasion, certain lines about a bar magnet were described and defined, (being those which are depicted to the eye by the use of iron filings sprinkled in the neighborhood of the magnet,) and were recommended as expressing accurately the nature, condition, direction, and amount of the force in any given region either within or outside of the bar. At that time the lines were considered in the abstract. Without departing from or unsettling anything then said, the inquiry is now entered upon, of the possible and probable physical existence of such lines. Many powers act manifestly at a distance; their physical nature is incomprehensible to us: still we may learn much that is real and positive about them, and amongst other things something of the condition of the space between the body acting and that acted upon, or between the two mutu* From the London Athenæum, July, 1852.

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