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SURVEYING

COMPRISING THE THEORY AND

THE PRACTICE

BY

WILLIAM M. GILLESPIE, LL. D.

FORMERLY PROFESSOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING IN UNION COLLEGE

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PREFACE.

GILLESPIE'S "Land-Surveying" was first printed in 1851, for use in Professor Gillespie's classes in Union College. It was published in 1855, and very soon became the standard authority on land-surveying.

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In the preface to the first edition Professor Gillespie says: Land-surveying is perhaps the oldest of the mathematical arts. Indeed, geometry itself, as its name-land-measuring' -implies, is said to have arisen from the efforts of the Egyp tian sages to recover and to fix the landmarks annually swept away by the inundations of the Nile. The art is also one of the most important at the present day, as determining the title to land, the foundation of the whole wealth of the world. It is, besides, one of the most useful as a study, from its striking exemplifications of the practical bearings of abstract mathematics. But, strangely enough, surveying has never yet been reduced to a systematic and symmetric whole. To effect this, by basing the art on a few simple principles and tracing them out into their complicated ramifications and varied applications (which extend from the measurement of 'a mowing-lot' to that of the heavens), has been the earnest endeavor of the present writer.

"The work, in its inception, grew out of the author's own needs. Teaching surveying, as preliminary to a course of civil engineering, he found none of the books in use (though very excellent in many respects) suited to his purpose. He was, therefore, compelled to teach the subject by a combination of familiar lectures on its principles and exemplifications of its practice. His notes continually swelling in bulk, gradually became systematized in nearly their present form. His system has thus been fully tested, and the present volume is the result.

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"A double object has been kept in view in its preparation : viz., to produce a very plain introduction to the subject, easy to be mastered by the young scholar or the practical man of little previous acquirement, the only prerequisites being arithmetic and a little geometry; and at the same time to make the instruction of such a character as to lay a foundation broad enough and deep enough for the most complete superstructure which the professional student may subsequently wish to raise upon it."

In the preface to the "Land-Surveying," Professor Gillespie announced that another volume, on "Leveling and Higher Surveying," was to follow. This work was, at the time of his death in 1868, unfinished. It was completed by the writer and published in 1870.

The two volumes, "Land-Surveying" and "Leveling and Higher Surveying," were revised and united in one volume

in 1887.

The rapid development of technical schools, and the demand. for a more complete treatment of higher surveying for the use of students, have made it necessary to considerably enlarge the more advanced part of the work. As this will very much increase the size of the book, and as this advanced work is not needed in the preparatory schools, and in colleges where only a limited amount of surveying is taught, it has been deemed best to publish the work in two separate parts. Part I-plane surveying will include land-surveying and direct leveling; and Part II—higher surveying-will include trigonometric leveling, barometric leveling, and precise leveling, topography, geodesy, field astronomy, hydrographical surveying, mining surveying, city surveying, and other special topics.

By this arrangement those who desire only the land-surveying and direct leveling can have it separately, and those who wish to include the more advanced work can add Part II.

The best authorities have been consulted in order to render

the work as reliable as possible.

The writer is under obligations to many friends for assistance in the work of revision. Their names will be noted in connection with their contributions.

CASE SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCE,

CLEVELAND, OHIO, November, 1895.

CADY STALEY.

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