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another, and differences of type were not considered important.1
The following list of early Norman castles in Ireland was first published in the Antiquary for 1906. It is an attempt to form a complete list from contemporary historians only, that is, from Giraldus Cambrensis and the "Song of Dermot," and from the documents published in Sweetman's Calendar, of the Norman castles built in Ireland, up to the end of John's reign. Since then, the task has been taken up on a far more philosophical plan by Mr Goddard H. Orpen, whose exceptional knowledge of the history of the invasion and the families of the conquerors has enabled him to trace their settlements in Ireland as they have never been traced before."3 Nevertheless, it still seems worth while to republish this list, as though within a limited compass, consistent with the writer's limited knowledge, it furnishes an adequate test of the correctness of the Norman theory, on a perfectly sound basis. The list has now the advantage of being corrected from Mr Orpen's papers, and of being enlarged by identifications which he has been able to make.1
1 It must be admitted that in the most recent and most learned edition of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle the topographical identifications are quite on a level with O'Donovan's.
2 The Annals have not been used, partly because in their present form they are not contemporary, and partly because the difficulties of identifying many of the castles they mention appeared insuperable.
3 See especially two papers on "Motes and Norman Castles in Ireland," in English Historical Review, vol. xxii., pp. 228, 240. Mr Orpen has further enriched this subject by a number of papers in the Journ. R. S. A. I„ to which reference will be made subsequently.
4 The only castles still unidentified are Aq'i, Kilmehal, Rokerel, and Inchleder.
*ANTRIM1 (Cal., i., 88).—A royal castle in 1251. Present castle modern; close to it is a large motte, marked in 25-inch O.M.
Aq'ı (Cal., i., 13).—Unidentified; perhaps an alias for one of the Limerick castles, as it was certainly in the county of Limerick.
ARDFINNAN, Tipperary (Gir., v., 386).-Built in 1185, immediately after John's coming to Ireland. No motte; castle is late Edwardian and partly converted into a modern house; one round tower has ogee windows. [B. T. S.
ARDMAYLE, OF ARMOLEN, Tipperary (Cal., i., 81).-A castle of Theobald Walter. A motte with half-moon bailey, and earthen wing walls running up its sides, exactly as stone walls do in later Norman castles. Ruins of a Perpendicular mansion close to it, and also a square tower with ogee windows. [B. T. S.] Fig. 45.
ARDNURCHER, or HORSELEAP, King's Co. (Song of Dermot and Cal., i., 145).-A castle of Meiler Fitz Henry's, built in 1192. An oblong motte with one certain bailey, and perhaps a second. No masonry but the remains of a wall or bridge across the fosse. [B. T. S.]
ARDREE, Kildare (Gir., v., 356, and Song).—The castle built by Hugh de Lacy for Thomas the Fleming in 1182, was at Ardri, on the Barrow. There is an artificial mound at Ardree, turned into a graveyard, and near it a levelled platform above the river, on which stands Ardree House. On the west bank of the
1 It should be stated that the great majority of the castles in this list have been visited for the writer by Mr Basil T. Stallybrass, who has a large acquaintance with English earthworks, as well as a competent knowledge of the history of architecture. The rest have been visited by the writer herself, except in a few cases where the information given in Lewis's Topographical Dictionary or other sources was sufficient. The castles personally visited are initialled.
2 Annals of Loch Cè.
Orpen, Eng. Hist. Rev., xxii., 249.
Barrow, opposite Ardree, is a low circular motte with ditch and bank, but no bailey. A piece of Norman pottery with green glaze was found by Mr Stallybrass, one foot below the surface in the counterscarp bank. Mr Orpen thinks this motte may have been the castle of Robert de Bigarz, also mentioned by Giraldus as near Ardree, on the opposite side of the Barrow.
ASKEATON, or HINNESKESTI, Limerick.-Built in 1199, probably by Hamo de Valoignes.1 An excellent instance of a motte-and-bailey castle, where the motte is of natural rock. The splendid keep and hall are of the 15th century, but there are two older towers, which might date from 1199. This natural motte has been identified with the ancient Irish fort of Gephthine (Askeaton = Eas Gephthine), mentioned in the Book of Rights. But this work does not mention any fort at Gephthine, only the place, in a list which is clearly one of lands (perhaps mensal lands), not of forts, as it contains many names of plains, and of tribes, as well as the three isles of Arran."
*ASKELON, or ESCLUEN (Cal., i., 91).—Castle restored to Richard de Burgh in 1215; the site is placed by Mr. Orpen at Carrigogunell, which is in the parish of Kilkeedy, Limerick. Carrigogunell has the ruins of a castle on a natural motte of rock.
1 Orpen, Eng. Hist. Rev., xxii., 450, citing from MS. Annals of Innisfallen.
2 The poetical list enumerates the places which were "of the right of Cashel in its power." The prose version, which may be assumed to be later, is entitled "Do phortaibh righ Caisil," which O'Donovan translates "of the seats of the king of Cashel." But can one small king have had sixtyone different abodes? Professor Bury says "The Book of Rights still awaits a critical investigation." Life of St Patrick, p. 69.
3 Ibid., p. 449. See Westropp, Trans. R. 1. A., xxvi. (c), p. 146. Mr Orpen informs me that the Black Book of Limerick contains a charter of William de Burgo which mentions "Ecclesia de Escluana alias Kilkyde." No. cxxxv.
*ATHLONE, Roscommon (Cal., i., 80).—Built in 1210 by the Justiciar, John de Gray. The keep is placed on a lofty motte, which has been revetted with masonry. Turlough O'Connor built a caislen at Athlone in 1129, but it was not even on the site of the Norman castle, for which John obtained land from the church, as already stated.
BAGINBUN (Gir., i., 13; Song, 1406).—Mr Orpen has proved that this was the spot where Raymond le Gros landed and entrenched himself for four months.1 It is a headland on the sea-coast, and headland castles seldom have mottes, as they were not needed on a promontory washed on three sides by the sea. Moreover, Baginbun was of the nature of a temporary fort rather than a residential castle, and it is to be noted that Giraldus calls it "a poor sort of a castle of stakes and sods." Still, the small inner area, ditched off with a double ditch, and the large area, also ditched, roughly correspond to the motte-and-bailey plan. [B. T. S.]
BALIMORE EUSTACE, Kildare (Cal., i., 28).—A castle of the Archbishop of Dublin. A motte, with a remarkable platform attached to one side (cf. Wigmore Castle). No bailey now; no stone castle. [B. T. S.]
CAHERCONLISH (Karkinlis, Kakaulis, Cal., i., 81).— Castle of Theobald Fitz Walter. There is nothing left above ground but a chimney of late date. A few yards from it is a hillock, which has very much the appearance of a mutilated motte. [E. S. A.] Mr Orpen, however, thinks that Theobald's castle may have been at Knockatancashlane, "the hill of the old castle," a townland a little to the north of Caherconlish.2
CARBURY, Kildare.--The Song says Meiler Fitz
1 Journ. R. S. A. I., 1898, 155; and 1904, 354.
Henry first got Carbury, so the castle was probably his. It is a motte with two baileys, one of imperfect outline, the other a curious little half-circle. A 15th-century castle is built against the side of the motte. [B. T. S.]
CARLINGFORD, Louth (Cal., i., 95).-Apparently a royal castle (Cal., i., 156), first mentioned in 1215. It stands on a rock, which might possibly have been a former motte. There certainly has been a former castle, for the present ruin is Edwardian in plan and in every detail. [E. S. A.]
CARRICK, Wexford (Gir., v., 245).—This again seems to be one of the temporary forts built by the first invaders (in this case Fitz Stephen), in a strong natural situation, and Giraldus applies to it the same contemptuous language as to Baginbun. There is no motte, but an oval area of 45 yards by 25 is ditched and banked ; a modern imitation of a round tower stands within the enclosure. [B. T. S.]
CARRICKFERGUS, Antrim (Cal., i., 107).—This was probably one of the castles built by John de Courcy, the conqueror of Ulster. The gatehouse and mural towers are late, but the keep may well be of De Courcy's time, and furnishes an excellent instance of a castle on the keep-and-bailey plan, built by the Normans in stone from the beginning. [E. S. A.]
CASTLETOWN DELVIN, Westmeath [Gir., v., 356].— Castle of Gilbert de Nungent. A motte, with a garden at base, which may have been the bailey; near it the stone castle, a keep with round towers at the angles, probably not as early as John's reign. [B. T. S.]
CLONARD, Meath (Gir., v., 356).-Built by Hugh de Lacy about 1182. A motte, with broad ditch and curious little oblong bailey; no remains in masonry. [B. T. S.]