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stood on the motte in Leland's time,1 as there is an entry in the Pipe Roll of the thirteenth year of his reign for 126/. 18s. 6d. for the work of the new tower. This keep, if Mr Clark is correct, was polygonal, with a timber stockade surrounding it.
Rockingham was only a small manor of one hide in Saxon times, though its Saxon owner had sac and soke. It stands in a forest district, not near any of the great ancient lines of road, and was probably built for a hunting seat.
The value of the manor had risen at the time of the Survey,3
During the Civil War, the motte of Rockingham was fortified in an elaborate manner by the Parliamentarians, part of the defences being two wooden stockades :* an interesting instance of the use both of mottes and of wooden fortifications in comparatively modern warfare. Only the north and west sides of this mount now remain.
OLD SARUM, Wilts (Fig. 30).-Sir Richard Colt Hoare printed in his Ancient Wiltshire a document purporting to be an order from Alfred, "King of the English," to Leofric, “Earl of Wiltunshire," to maintain the castle of Sarum, and add another ditch to it." The phraseology of the document suggests some doubts of its genuineness, and though there would be nothing
1 "I markid that there is stronge Tower in the Area of the Castelle, and from it over the Dungeon Dike is a drawbridge to the Dungeon Toure." Itin., i., 14.
2 "In operatione nove turris et nove camere in cast. 1267. 18s. 6d.” 3 D. B., i., 120.
* See the plan reproduced in Wise's Rockingham Castle and the Watsons,
5 Vol. i., p. 224: cited by Mr Irving in his valuable paper on Old Sarum in Arch. Journ., xv., 1859. Sir Richard made a vague reference to an MS. in the Cottonian and Bodleian libraries, for which Mr Irving says he has searched in vain.
improbable in the theory that Alfred reared the outer bank of the fortress, recent excavations have shown that the place was occupied by the Romans, and therefore make it certain that its origin was very much earlier than Alfred's time. Moreover, the convergence of several Roman roads at this spot suggests the probability of a Roman station,' while the form of the enclosure renders an earlier origin likely. Domesday Book does not speak of Salisbury as a burgus, and when the burgus of Old Sarum is mentioned in later documents it appears to refer to a district lying at the foot of the Castle Hill, and formerly enclosed with a wall. Nor is it one of the boroughs of the Burghal Hidage. But that Sarum was an important place in Saxon times is clear from the fact that there was a mint there; and there is evidence of the existence of at least four Saxon churches, as well as a hospital for lepers.3
For more exact knowledge as to the history of this ancient fortress we must wait till the excavations now going on are finished, but in the meanwhile it seems probable that the theory adopted by General Pitt-Rivers is correct. He regarded Old Sarum as a British earthwork, with an inner castle and outer barbicans added by the Normans. After building this castle in the midst of it the Normans appear to have considered the outer and
1 General Pitt-Rivers in his Address to the Salisbury meeting of the Archæological Institute in 1887, says that traces of these roads may still be seen. He adds that Old Sarum does not resemble the generality of ancient British fortifications, in that the rampart is of the same height all round, instead of being lower where the ground is steeper; this led him to think that the original fortress had been modernised in later times. Sir Richard Colt Hoare noticed that the ramparts of Sarum were twice as high as those of the fine prehistoric camps with which he was acquainted. Ancient Wiltshire, p. 226.
2 Benson and Hatcher's Old and New Sarum, p. 604.
3 Cf. Benson and Hatcher, 63, with Beauties of England and Wales, xv.,
larger fortification too valuable to be given up to the public, but retained it under the government of the castellan, and treated it as part of the castle.
There is no mention of the castle of Salisbury in Domesday Book, but the bishop is named as the owner of the manor. The episcopal see of Sherborne was transferred to Sarum in 1076 by Bishop Hermann, in accordance with the policy adopted by William I. that episcopal sees should be removed from villages to towns: a measure which in itself is a testimony to the importance of Salisbury at that time. The first mention of the castle is in the charter of Bishop Osmund, 1091. The bishop was allowed to lay the foundations of his new cathedral within the ancient fortress. As might be expected, friction soon arose between the castellans and the ecclesiastics; the castellans claimed the custody of the gates, and sometimes barred the canons, whose houses seem to have been outside the fortress, from access to the church. These quarrels were ended eventually by the removal of the cathedral to the new town of Salisbury at the foot of the hill.
The position of the motte of Old Sarum is exceptional, as it stands in the centre of the outer fortress. This must be owing to the position of the ancient vallum, encircling the summit of one of those round, gradually sloping hills so common in the chalk ranges, which made it necessary to place the motte in the centre, because it was the highest part of the ground. The
1 D. B., i., 66. “Idem episcopus tenet Sarisberie." Part of the land which had been held under the bishop was now held by Edward the Sheriff, the ancestor of the earls of Salisbury. This in itself is a proof that the castle was new. See Freeman, N. C., iv., 797.
" This policy had been dictated by an œcumenical council.
3 He gives to the canons of the church two hides in the manor, “et ante portam castelli Seriberiensis terram ex utraque parte viæ in ortorum domorumque canonicorum necessitate." M. A., vi., 1294.