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York in 1068, and Ordericus makes the same statement.' Lincoln, like Exeter, was a Roman castrum, and the Norman castle in both cases was placed in one corner of the castrum; but the old Roman wall of Lincoln, which stands on the natural ground, was not considered to be a sufficient defence on the two exterior sides, probably on account of its ruinous condition. It was therefore buried in a very high and steep bank, which was carried all round the new castle. This circumstance seems to point to the haste with which the castle was built, Lincoln being then for the first time subdued. The fact that it was inside the probably closely packed Roman walls explains why so many houses were destroyed for the castle. Lincoln, like Lewes, has two mottes: both are of about the same height, but the one in the middle of the southern line of defence is the larger and more important; it was originally surrounded with its own ditch. It is now crowned with a polygonal shell wall, which may have been built by the mother of Ralph Gernon, Earl of Chester, in the reign of Henry I.* The tower on the other motte, at the south-east corner,

1 "In reversione sua Lincoliæ, Huntendonæ, et Grontebrugæ castra locavit." Ordericus, 185 (Prévost).

2 At present the bank is wanting on a portion of the south side, between the two mottes.

3 Mr Clark gravely argues that the houses were inside what he believes to have been the Saxon castle. There is not a vestige of historical evidence for the existence of any castle in Lincoln in the Saxon period.

* Stephen gave Ralph the castle and city of Lincoln, and gave him leave to fortify one of the towers in Lincoln Castle, and have command of it until the king should deliver to him the castle of Tickhill; then the king was to have the city and castle of Lincoln again, excepting the earl's own tower, which his mother had fortified. His mother was Lucy, daughter of Ivo Taillebois; and as the principal tower was known as the Luce Tower, the masonry may have been her work. In that case the Norman work on the smaller motte may be due to Ralph Gernon, and may possibly be the nova turris which was repaired in John's reign. Pipe Roll, 2 John. Stephen's charter is in Farrer's Lancashire Pipe Rolls.

has been largely rebuilt in the 14th century and added to in modern times, but its lower storey still retains work of Norman character. There is good reason to suppose that this bailey was first walled with stone in Richard I.'s reign, as there is an entry in the Pipe Rolls of 11931194 "for the cost of fortifying the bailey, £82, 16s. 4d."1 The present wall contains a good deal of herring-bone work, and this circumstance led Mr Clark, who was looking for something which he could put down to William I.'s time, to believe that the walls were of that date. But the herring-bone work is all in patches, as though for repairs, and herring-bone work was used for repairs at all epochs of medieval building. The two gateways (that is the Norman portions of them) are probably of about the same date as the castle wall. The whole area is 5 acres.

The total revenue which the city of Lincoln paid to the king and the earl had gone up from 30%. T. R. E. to 100l. T. R. W. For the sake of those who imagine that Saxon halls had anything to do with mottes, it is worth noting that the hall which was the residence of the chief landholder in Lincoln before the Conquest was still in existence after the building of the castle, but evidently had no connection with it.2

MONMOUTH (Fig. 21).-Domesday Book says that the king has four ploughs in demesne in the castle of

1 "In custamento firmandi ballium castelli Lincoll." Pipe Roll, 5 Richard I. In an excavation made for repairs in modern times it was found that this wall rested on a timber frame-work, a device to avoid settling, the wall being of 'great height and thickness. Wilson, Lincoln Castle, Proc.、 Arch. Inst., 1848.

2 D. B., i. 336b, 2: "Tochi filius Outi habuit in civitate 30 mansiones præter suam hallam, et duas ecclesias et dimidiam, et suam hallam habuit quietam ab omni consuetudine. . . . Hanc aulam tenuit Goisfredus Alselin et suus nepos Radulfus. Remigius episcopus tenet supradictas 30 mansiones ita quod Goisfredus nihil inde habet."

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