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stored to them, but this was not done.

Edward Baliol

(son of the competitcr) was among the number who thus suffered; he raised a small force, with the assistance of his friends, landed in Scotland, and met with such success that in little more than a month he was crowned king. He was soon expelled; was restored, again expelled, returned in company with the king of England, whom he had formally acknowledged as his liege lord, and to whom he had ceded, as far as treaties went, the whole of the country south of the Forth and Clyde; but though the allies ravaged the land as far north as Inverness, killed the earl of Douglas, who acted as regent for David II., and captured Berwick, their enterprise failed, and the kingdom of Scotland remains to the present day de facto and de jure independent of any other.

A.D. 1332. Edward Baliol and his friends invade Scotland; they land at Kinghorn, in Fifeshire, Aug. 7; and defeat the Scots near Perth, Aug. 11, 12.

Baliol is crowned at Scone, Sept. 27; he subjects the crown of Scotland to that of England by his letters patent, dated Roxburgh, Nov. 23, but is suddenly attacked by the Scots at Annan, at Christmas, and expelled.

A.D. 1333. The Scots invade England; the king marches into Scotland, and besieges Berwick; Douglas, the regent, attempts to relieve it, but is defeated and killed at Halidon, (near Berwick,) July 19, and the town surrenders, July 20.

Balio is received as king by a parliament held at Perth in October.

A.D. 1334. Baliol offends his supporters by ceding the whole south of Scotland to the English, Feb. 12; he is obliged to flee to Berwick.

A.D. 1335. A parliament held at York, in May, in which freedom of trading is guaranteed to foreign merchants [9 Edw. III. c. 1].

The king, in concert with Baliol, ravages Scotland, advancing, in the course of the next year, as far as Inverness.

A.D. 1337. The French give considerable succours to the Scots; in retaliation, the king forms continental alliances, and assumes the title of King of France.

The export of wool prohibited, and foreign clothworkers allowed to settle in England [11 Edw. III. c. 1.] A.D. 1338. The king embarks for Flanders, from Orwell, July 16, leaving his son Edward regent, but is unable to attack France until the next year.

A.D. 1339. The king invades France from Flanders, in September, but most of his allies desert him, and he is obliged to retire after ravaging the Cambresis and other frontier districts.

A.D. 1340. The king returns to England in February; holds a parliament, March 29, obtains supplies, and sails from Orwell, June 22.

The clergy exempted from purveyance [14 Edw. III. c. 1.]

Sheriffs directed to be appointed annually, at the Exchequer, on the morrow of All Soulsh [14 Edw. III. c. 7].

It was subsequently made felony [27 Edw. III. st. 2, c. 3].

h The statute recites that many sheriffs had been guilty of great oppression in their office, which they considered themselves to hold for life.

One weight and one measure established for the whole kingdom [14 Edw. III. c. 12].

The king defeats the French fleet at Sluys, June 24; he orders a public thanksgiving for his victory.

He besieges Tournay, and challenges "Philip of Valois" to a single combat, July 26; the French king refuses to meet him, July 30; a truce is concluded, Sept. 25, to last till June 25, 1341, but it is prolonged till 1342.

The king returns to England, landing suddenly at the Tower, Nov. 30; he displaces and otherwise punishes the chancellor (Robert Stratford, bishop of Chichester',) and many of the chief officers of state.

A.D. 1341. A parliament held at Westminster in April. Some of the statutes passed there are afterwards set aside, as having been obtained against the will of the king.

Peers of the realm to be tried for offences only by the parliament [15 Edw. III. c. 2].

A dispute concerning the succession arises in Britanny; the king supports John de Montfort in opposition to Charles of Blois, the nephew of the king of France.

A.D. 1342. The wife of De Montfort (Jane, sister of Louis I., count of Flanders,) defends herself in Hennebon until relieved by Sir Walter Manny.

The king passes over to Britanny in October.

i This was one of the remedies promised by Magna Charta, but like many other valuable points, it seems to have been neglected.

He was succeeded by Sir Robert Bourchier, the first layman who held the office of chancellor.

John III., duke of Britanny, dying without male issue, the duchy was claimed by his half-brother, John de Montfort, and Charles of Blois, who had married his niece. The French court adjudged it to Charles, but he was vigorously opposed by the Montforts, and at length killed in the field. John de Montfort the younger married Mary, daughter of Edward III., and was powerfully supported by him; he was thus established in Britanny, but in the next reign, to conciliate the king of France, he abandoned the English cause.

CC

A.D. 1343. A fresh truce concluded with France, Jan. 19, to last till Michaelmas, 1346, and the king returns, landing at Weymouth March 2.

Negotiations for a peace are carried on before the pope (Clement VI.) at Avignon, but without success.

The barons remonstrate with the pope on the abuse of provisions*, May 18, and the king also complains of them, Sept. 26.

The earl of Salisbury (William Montacute) obtains possession of the Isle of Man, and is crowned there.

When the islanders put themselves

under the protection of Edward I.1,
he bestowed Alfrida, the granddaugh-
ter of the last native king, on Sir
Simon Montacute, and she trans-
mitted her rights to her husband,
who mortgaged the isle to An-
thony Beck, bishop of Durham.
was afterwards granted by Edward

It

Arms of Montacute, earl of
Salisbury.

II. to Gaveston, and in 1313 was recovered by the Scots, but their rule was unpopular, and the natives invited Montacute to drive them outm.

A.D. 1344. The truce with France broken; the earl of Derby (John of Gaunt) is successful in Guienne.

The papal court had long been in the habit of granting what were termed provisions, in virtue of which persons (usually foreign priests) were intruded into English churches, and even bishops' sees, in violation of the rights of the king and other patrons. The abuse had been often resisted (see p. 326), but it was too profitable to be readily abandoned.

1 See p. 350.

m The earl of Salisbury was the grandson of Alfrida, and a military commander of eminence. He died in 1346, and was buried in the church of the White Friars in London. His son William sold the island in 1395 to Sir William Scrope.

The florin, the first English gold coin", struck this year. A.D. 1345. De Montfort escapes from prison and

repairs to Britanny.

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The king goes to Flanders, to endeavour to gain that earldom for his son Edward P; his chief partisan, Jacob van Arteveldt, is killed in a popular tumult at Ghent, July 17, and the attempt fails.

A.D. 1346. The king invades Normandy, landing at La Hogue July 10. He ravages the country on the left bank of the Seine as far as Paris, but is reduced to great difficulties by the bridges being broken down.

Having repaired the bridge at Poissy, he crosses the river, burns the suburbs of Beauvais, and defeats a body of the French beyond the Somme, Aug. 24.

He halts at Crecy, near Abbeville, Aug. 25; is attacked there by a greatly superior French force, but totally defeats them 9, Aug. 26; marches onward, Sept. 1, through the country of Boulogne, and invests Calais.

David II. of Scotland, incited by the French, invades England; he is defeated and taken prisoner at Nevill's Cross, near Durham, Oct. 12".

That is, the first that remained any length of time in circulation. Henry III. coined a "gold penny," but it appears to have been withdrawn; and a gold coin attributed to Edward the Confessor exists. See p. 48.

• He had been captured by the partisans of Charles of Blois, and was imprisoned in Paris, and was still confined in spite of the stipu lation for his release in the articles of truce; he died soon after, but the war was continued by his son.

P The count (Louis I.) had refused to abandon his alliance with the king of France, and Edward, in revenge, endeavoured to avail himself of the discontent that had long existed between the rulers and the great trading towns of Flanders.

His success is said to have been partly owing to the employment of cannon, some pieces of which were, according to Barbour, used by him against the Scots as early as 1327.

Queen Philippa is said to have been with the army, but this is probably incorrect.

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