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causes, but the law of inheritance is changed, and in criminal matters the English law is to be in force. Sanctuary is no longer to be allowed, but those who would otherwise be entitled to it are to abjure the realm within a given time, proceeding by the high road, cross in hand, to some appointed sea-port. Sheriffs are appointed for Anglesey, Caernarvon, Merioneth, and Flint, with coroners and bailiffs in each district, who are all placed under the supervision of the justice of Chester. The rest of the country remained as before under the jurisdiction of the marchers.

As the sincerity of the people's submission was reasonably doubted, the king erected many new strongholds, and re-edified others, constructing them on a plan so different from that of the Normans, that the term Edwardian is usually applied to them. Flint, Rhuddlan, Hawarden, Denbigh, Caernarvon, Conway, Beaumaris, and Harlech, in the immediate neighbourhood of Snowdon; Cilgarran, in the palatinate of Pembroke; and Caerphilly, in the honour of Glamorgan, are among the number; and some idea of their original appearance and strength may be gained from the engraving on the opposite page, which represents Caerphilly, as restored from plans and drawings made in a recent careful survey. As a further security, bodies of English were planted in convenient stations, and endowed with municipal privileges; from these "borough, or English towns," Welshmen were rigidly excluded, not being allowed to hold either lands or office therein.

Among them may be named, Montgomery, Radnor, Brecknock, and Caermarthen, which had before been in the hands of the lords marchers, but were now annexed to the crown.

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Popular tradition charges the king with a systematic massacre of the Welsh bards, but though the order may be said almost to have disappeared with the complete subjugation of their country, this odious accusation appears to be unfounded. The bards, as we see from the laws of Dyvnwal Moelmud, considered themselves the leading order in the state; they also claimed the right of celebrating marriage under the oak-tree, and ostentatiously retained many ceremonies of Druidic origin; they were thus avowedly hostile to, and disliked by, the clergy, who for ages had maintained a closer connexion than the rest of their countrymen with England. Many of the bards too were bitter satirists, and branded their opponents as betrayers of their country; they also, we know, often bore arms, and many doubtless perished in the field; others would probably be denounced, and thus meet with death as traitors; hence their disappearance under the English rule may be accounted for, without imputing such personal guilt to the conqueror.

A.D. 1283. The Statute of Merchants' [11 Edw. I.), to facilitate the recovery of their debts, passed Oct. 12, at Acton Burnell, in Shropshire.

A.D. 1284. Margaret of Norway acknowledged as heir to the crown of Scotland, at Scone, Feb. 5.

P See p. 64.

See pp. 92, 106, 224.

There is another statute of the same name [13 Edw. I. c. 3] passed in 1285, to give better effect to the provisions of the former, but it is expressly provided that the Jews are not to be benefited thereby. She was the grandchild of Alexander III. and Margaret, the sister of Edward I., by Margaret, their daughter, who married Eric, king of Norway.

A.D. 1285. The king solemnly presents at Westminster many rich spoils from Wales. Among them are "a large piece of the true cross," and many other famous relics adorned with gems and gold, and 'the crown of King Arthur.”


A statute passed to redress disorders in London [13 Edw. I. c. 5t.]

Justices of assize appointed, to go into every shire twice or thrice a year for the more speedy administration of justice [13 Edw. I. c. 30.]

A.D. 1286. The king goes to Gascony, in June; he reduces the province to obedience, and stays there three years; Edmund, earl of Lancaster, is regent.

The king arbitrates between the French and the Arragonese on account of Sicily.

A.D. 1287. The king, being seized with severe illness, again assumes the cross.

Alexander III. of Scotland dies, March 16; six regents are chosen to govern the kingdom in the minority of his grand-daughter Margaret".

The Welsh, under Rhys ap Meredith, attempt to shake

This statute presents a curious picture of the times. No armed men are to be seen in the street after the curfew has tolled at St. Martin's le Grand "except he be a great man, or other lawful person of good repute, or their messenger with their warrant, and lantern in hand." All brokers are placed under the special direction of the magistrates, as they were often "foreigners who for great offence have fled their country;" none but freemen are to keep taverns, and none are to teach fencing in the city under heavy penalties.

She remained in Norway with her father until 1290, when a marriage having been arranged for her with Edward, prince of Wales, she sailed for Scotland, but died on her way in the Orkneys, Oct. 7, and was buried in the cathedral of St. Magnus at Kirkwall.

He was a descendant of Owen Gwynneth, and had sided with the English against Llewelyn in the expectation of being placed on the throne in his stead, but was contemptuously treated when

the war was over.

off the English yoke, June; they are subdued by Robert Tiptoft, the king's justiciary, and their leader carried to York and hanged.

A.D. 1288. The pope (Nicholas IV.) grants to the king the tenth of the revenues of “all the churches of England, Scotland, and Ireland," for the service of the Holy Landy.

A.D. 1289. The king returns to England in August. He causes a strict inquiry to be made into the conduct of the judges, sheriffs, and other officers during his absence, banishes some of the guilty, (among them Thomas de Weyland, the chief justice,) and imposes heavy fines upon others.

The marriage treaty of Prince Edward and Margaret of Norway, which recognises Scotland as “free, absolute, and independent," concluded at Salisbury, Nov. 6, between the kings of England and Norway, their parents.

A.D. 1290. “The fierce multitude of the Jews," with their wives and children, and all their moveable property, are ordered to leave England, Aug. 31a; the feast of All Saints (Nov. 1) was the period assigned, which they were not to exceed on pain of death ".

The king takes possession of the Isle of Man, at the request of the inhabitants.

The king did not at once avail himself of this grant, as the sur vey (known as the Taxation of Pope Nicholas) was not made until 1291 and 1292.

These fines are said to have amounted to the enormous sum of 100,000 marks, or much more than the annual revenue of the kingdom.

They had previously been banished from Gascony by the king. The king granted passes to them, to the number of 16,511, and strictly forbade any injury to be done to them; some mariners who violated his commands by drowning a number of them at the mouth of the Thames were executed.

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