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The marchers break the truce; they are declared outlaws, and De Montfort marches against them, taking the king with him. They attempt to prevent his passing the Severn, but are defeated, and obliged to surrender many of their castles.

De Montfort, now "in all but name a king," keeps his Christmas in regal state at Kenilworth.

A.D. 1265. The parliament assembles, Jan. 28. This assembly was differently constituted from any former one, and its meeting is an important constitutional epoch. Only eleven prelates and twenty-three peers were summoned in the ordinary way by writs, but to them were added more than one hundred of the inferior dignified clergy, two knights from each county, and two representatives from each city, borough, and cinque port. The whole appear to have formed but one house. This innovation was apparently too popular to be set aside when the king resumed his authority, and the three estates of parliament, king, lords, and commons, have ever since continued an integral part of the constitution.

Prince Edward is released from his confinement at Wallingford, on surrendering his castles, and promising not to leave England for three years, nor to plot against the barons; he is sent to reside, in "free custody," at Hereford.

The earl of Gloucesters quarrels with De Montfort, and joins his forces to those of the marchers; William de Valence also lands in South Wales with a body of

⚫ Gilbert de Clare, the son of Richard, who died in 1262.

foreign crossbowmen. Prince Edward escapes from his guards, May 28, and joins Mortimer.

De Montfort, taking the king with him, marches against them. He is successful at first, but is surprised, defeated, and killed by Prince Edward at Evesham, August 4, and the king set at liberty.

A parliament held at Winchester, early in September, at which severe measures are taken against the vanquished barons, and the Londoners.

Prince Edward captures Dover, and releases many of his partisans; he then reduces the other Cinque Ports; Winchelsea makes a stout defence, but is taken by assault, "and at his entrance much blood was shed."

These violent measures did not close the contest. The dispossessed knights and nobles spread themselves as a banditti all over the country; the earl of Derby (Robert Ferrers ") held the castle of Chesterfield; Simon de Montfort the younger seized the isle of Axholme, and was not reduced until the end of the year, his resistance producing this benefit, that his adherents were allowed to redeem their forfeited estates by heavy fines; but many were unwilling or unable to do this, and they retired, some to the castle


He was grandson of the great earl of Pembroke. He professed to belong to neither party, but made war on his own account, ravaged Worcester and other places, and long after De Montfort's death maintained himself and a numerous band by plunder. He was at last captured, and imprisoned for a while, and so heavy a ransom was laid on him that he was unable to raise it, when his lands were forfeited, and granted to the king's son Edmund. He tried to recover them by legal process, but

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was unsuccessful, and died in poverty in 1278. Arms of Ferrers, earl of Derby.

of Kenilworth, some to the isle of Ely, and continued to defy the power of both the king and the legate.

A.D. 1266. The castle of Kenilworth is besieged by the king for several months without effect; it is at last surrendered through famine, in November.

Whilst the siege was proceeding an assembly of clergy and laity was held at Coventry, which drew up the terms of accommodation known as Dictum de Kenilworth. This document, which is one of the Statutes of the Realm, is dated Oct. 15, 1266. It provides that the liberties of the Church shall be preserved, as also the Great Charters, "which the king is bound expressly by his own oath to keep;" it also declares that there shall be no disherison, but instead, fines of from seven years' to half a year's rent; the family of De Montfort is excluded from this benefit, and all persons are forbidden, under both civil and spiritual penalties, to circulate "vain and foolish miracles" regarding Simon de Montfort, who was currently spoken of by his adherents as a saint and martyr.

Many of the defenders of Kenilworth refuse the terms offered, and join their friends in Ely.

A.D. 1267. The king marches against the isle of Ely; in his absence the earl of Clare seizes London, and besieges the legate in the Towery, who defends him

▾ See p. 320.

The reason for this is given in the document itself:-"Because the king is bound to many that helped him and faithfully stood by him, for whom he hath provided no lands, and some have more than they should have, let the king provide that he largely reward them of the ransoms to be taken, lest it turn to a matter of new war."

y A number of the Jews, with their wives and families, took refuge with him, "and one quarter of the castle was committed to them, which, being in desperate circumstances, they defended vigorously."

self there until relieved, and places London under an interdict.

Many of the nobles from Ely join the earl of Clare in London; they are welcomed by the Londoners, and together plunder the palace at Westminster.

The king sells the jewels of the church of Westminster, and hires forces both from France and Scotland.

Prince Edward at length reduces the isle of Ely, and grants the terms of the edict of Kenilworth to its defenders, July 25.

Peace is made with Llewelyn, who acknowledges that he holds his principality of the king; he promised to pay a sum of money, and was to receive in return the district called the Four Barriers, which had been seized by the English in the time of Prince David2.

The earl of Clare is reconciled to Mortimer and the other marchers, and gives security for his future conduct. A parliament held at Marlborough, in November, at which various provisions are made to preserve the peace, and curb the excesses of the victorious royalists.

A.D. 1268. The legate holds a council at London, April 16, which publishes a decree to remedy the evils of the civil war; he holds another at Northampton, at which Prince Edward and his brother Edmund, together with the earl of Clare and many other nobles, assume the cross.

See p. 311. By Matthew Paris this transaction is ascribed to the year 1259; Llewelyn's charter, in the Tower, bears date " Die Sanctorum Gervasii et Prochasii, A. D. MCCLXV." (June 19, 1265), but that being before the battle of Evesham, it is presumed there is an error in the year, and the statement of Matthew of Westminster, that Llewelyn submitted shortly after the reduction of the isle of Ely, has been followed.

John, earl of Warrenne, having wounded Alan de la Zouche, the king's justiciary, in Westminster Hall, is besieged in his castle of Reigate by Prince Edward, and obliged to surrender.

A.D. 1269. Prince Edward proceeds on the crusade, in May.

A.D. 1270. The charters of the city of London are restored, July 16.

King Louis dies before Tunis, Aug. 25; Tunis is taken shortly after, when the French abandon the crusade, but Prince Edward proceeds with the English to Palestine.

The Scots complete the conquest of the Isle of Mana.

A.D. 1271. Henry, son of the king of Germany, is killed at Viterbo, by Guy and Simon de Montfort, in March,

Prince Edward captures Nazareth, in May, and gains several battles against the Saracens.

A.D. 1272. An attempt made to assassinate Prince Edward at Acre, June 17; he soon after makes a truce with the Mohammedans, and sails for Italy, Aug. 15.

The king dies, Nov. 16; he is buried at Westminster, Nov. 20, fealty being at once sworn to his son Edward, "though men were ignorant whether he was alive, for he had gone to distant countries beyond the sea, warring against the enemies of Christ."

a They ruled it until 1290, when the inhabitants took advantage of the disturbed state of Scotland to claim the protection of Edward I.

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