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structing mangonels and other battering engines, by means of which the city was speedily reduced to extremity, as the English fleet blockaded the harbour, and cut off the supplies it was in the habit of receiving by sea.

Several partisans of Earl John take up arms; he arrives in England, and seizes the castles of Nottingham and Tickhill.

Acre is surrendered, July 12, and about 5,000 hostages given for the delivery of the cross (captured at Tiberias) and many Christian prisoners, and the payment of a heavy ransom.

The kings of England and France quarrel about the claims of Conrad of Montferrat to the crown of Jerusalem v.

The king of France, after taking an oath not to injure the king of England in his men and possessions in Europe, sails from Acre July 31, "receiving, instead of blessings, execrations and maledictions from the

army." Richard encamps outside Acre, Aug. 25, and prepares for his march on Jerusalem.

The Saracens not fulfilling the conditions, the hostages are massacred, Aug. 30; Saladin kills his prisoners on receiving the news.

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'During the two winters and one summer, and up to

The duke of Austria (Leopold V.), having captured one of the towers and placed his banner thereon, it was thrown down by Richard's order; hence the hatred of the duke, and Richard's captivity.

Guy de Lusignan and Conrad of Montferrat had married Sibylla and Isabella, the sisters of Baldwin IV. Guy's wife had died during the siege of Acre, and his claim to the throne was generally considered to have expired with her; he was, too, despised as wanting capacity and courage, whilst Conrad was popular from his gallant defence of Tyre, (see p. 262). Conrad obtained the nominal kingdom, but was soon after assassinated.

the middle of the autumn, when the Turks were hanged (as they deserved to be),” says Geoffrey de Vinsauf, “in the sight of God and man, in return for the ruin of our churches and slaughter of our men, many of the Christians, who at great sacrifice had engaged in the siege of Acre, died. The common men of so great an army who perished appears to surpass computation, but the sum total of the chiefs a certain writer has thus estimated : We lost in the army six archbishops and patriarchs, twelve bishops, forty counts, and five hundred men of noble rank; we lost also a vast number of priests and others who cannot be counted."

Richard marches along the coast towards Ascalon, his fleet keeping company; the Saracens harass his march. He passes Cæsarea, and at Arsoof defeats the Saracens, Sept. 6. James of Avennes being killed in the battle is solemnly buried the next day at Arsoof, "in the church of Our Lady the Queen of Heaven.”

Geoffrey, archbishop of York, comes to England, Sept. 14; is seized and imprisoned by Longchamp, Sept. 19. Earl John espouses his cause, Oct. 4; Longchamp is expelled, Oct. 10, and retires to Normandy.

Saladin destroys many of the fortresses, and Richard encamps at Joppa (Jaffa). Many of his troops return to Acre, but are brought back.

Richard, while hawking with a small escort, is surprised by the Saracens, and only escapes capture through the devotion of William de Pratelles".

He had long served in Palestine, and could speak the Saracenic language; he cried out that he was the melech (king), and was carried off. Richard gave ten Saracen chiefs in exchange for him, when about to quit the Holy Land,

Richard advances towards Jerusalem, restores several of the ruined castles, and rescues a body of Templars from destruction by his personal efforts, Nov. 6.

Saladin makes overtures for peace.

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Richard encamps at Ramla, and remains there seven weeks; Saladin retires to Jerusalem. The Christians suffer much from bad weather, and their sick and wounded are waylaid and murdered. 'But," says Geoffrey de Vinsauf, "surely these are all to be accounted martyrs, and there is this consolation, that though the Turks slew them with evil intentions, yet they suffered but for a moment, and gained the reward of a long service."

A.D. 1192. A council held, at which it is determined to abandon the march on Jerusalem, Jan. 4; the army retires to Ascalon, which it reaches, after much suffering from the weather, Jan. 20.

The fortifications of Ascalon restored.

Richard receives intelligence of the proceedings of his enemies in Europe, and prepares for his return, April. Conrad of Montferrat chosen king of Jerusalem; he is assassinated at Tyre, April 27 or 29.

Henry of Champagne is chosen king of Jerusalem; when Richard bestows Cyprus on Guy of Lusignan.

Richard captures the fortress of Daron, May 21. The army resolve on the siege of Jerusalem, even though Richard should leave them.

Richard, being strongly exhorted by his chaplain, William of Poitiers, proclaims his intention (June 4.) of not quitting the army before the following Easter. Richard sets out on his second march against Jerusa


lem, June 7. He encamps at Betenoble, and remains there until July 6; then, the siege of Jerusalem being found impracticable, breaks up his camp, dismantles Daron, strengthens Ascalon and Joppa, and reaches Acre July 26.

Saladin attacks Joppa, July 26; he obliges the inhabitants to promise to surrender, Aug. 1, but they are relieved by Richard, who restores their ruined walls.

Richard falls ill, and concludes a truce with Saladin, according to which Ascalon is to be demolished, Joppa, with the sea coast as far as Tyre, is secured to the Christians, and the freedom of pilgrimage to Jerusalem established a.

Various companies make the pilgrimage, and are kindly treated by Saphadin and Saladin, who control the fanaticism of their followers".

"When the count [Henry of Champagne] and the bishop [of Salisbury] had returned from the sacred places." says Richard of Devizes, "they endeavoured to persuade the king to go up; but the worthy indignation of his

Richard evidently only agreed to this truce with reluctance, for after it was concluded, "he sent ambassadors to Saladin, announcing to him that he had only asked this truce of three years for the purpose of revisiting his country, and collecting more men and money. wherewith to return and rescue all the land of Jerusalem from his domination." Saladin replied in terms of high commendation of Richard's valour.


b The first party of pilgrims, advancing without precaution, fell in with a large body of Turks, who, as Geoffrey de Vinsauf says, "grinned and frowned on them, and made them wish themselves back again at Acre." Saladin afterwards posted guards on the roads for their protection, but still they could only visit the holy places in haste and fear. "We saluted them with tears, and then we departed together with speed, for it was unsafe to go anywhere but in a body; the unbelievers secretly strangled three or four of our men who strayed into the crypts of the church on Mount Zion. . . . . The Turks spurned us from them, and we grieved over the pollution of the churches and sepulchres, now used as stables by the infidels."

noble mind could not consent to receive that from the courtesy of the Gentiles which he could not obtain by the gift of God."

Richard sets sail from Acre, Oct. 9o.

"All night the ship sped on her way by the light of the stars, and when the morning dawned, the king looked back with yearning eyes on the land he had left, and after long meditation he prayed aloud, in the hearing of several, in these words; 'Oh! holy land, I commend thee to God; and if His heavenly grace shall grant me so long to live that I may, in His good time, afford thee assistance, I hope to be able to be some day a succour to theed!'"

The king's fleet reaches Sicily, but his own vessel is driven to Corfu, Nov. 11; he is soon after shipwrecked in the upper part of the Adriatic, and attempts to make his way in disguise, as Hugh the merchant. He at length reaches Erperg, near Vienna, where, being recognised, he is seized by Leopold, duke of Austriao, Dec. 20.

The emperor (Henry VI.) claims the custody of Richard, Dec. 28, and confines him in a castle in the Tyrol.

A.D. 1193. Richard's prison is discovered by Longchamp; the queen-mother appeals to the pope (Celestine III.) who excommunicates his oppressors, but fails

to obtain his freedom.

Richard is brought before the diet at Hagenau, about Easter (March 28), where he clears himself by oath


His queen and his sister sailed with the main body of his fleet on Sept. 29.

d Geoffrey de Vinsauf.

Though this prince has rendered himself detested for this base act, he had greatly distinguished himself at the siege of Acre. He was thrown from his horse in Dec. 1194, and died shortly after.

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