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A.D. 80. Agricola's third campaign, in which he advances as far as Taua (the Frith of Tay).

A.D. 81. Agricola's fourth campaign; he builds a chain of forts between Glota and Bodotria (the Friths of Clyde and Forth).

Titus dies, September 13, and is succeeded by Domitian.

A.D. 82. Agricola's fifth campaign, in which he visits the north-western coast of Britain: a fugitive chief from Ierne (Ireland) is received by him.

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Agricola," says Tacitus, "placed forces in that part of Britain which fronts Ireland, more from future views than from any present fear. In truth, Ireland, as it lies just between Britain and Spain, and is capable of an easy communication with the coast of Gaul, would have proved of infinite use in linking together these limbs of the empire. In size it is inferior to Britain, but surpasses the islands in our sea. In soil and climate, as also in the temper and manners of the natives, it varies little from Britain. Its ports and landings are better known, through the frequency of commerce and merchants."

A.D. 83. Agricola's sixth campaign, beyond the Frith of Clyde.

The Caledonians attack the Romans, and are defeated.

A cohort of Germans, attempting to desert, sail round the extremity of the island, are wrecked, and sold into slavery.

A.D. 84. Agricola's seventh campaign, in which he defeats the Caledonians under Galgacus.

The Horestanim obliged to give hostages.

Agricola sails round Britain, and discovers the Orcades, according to Tacitus. See A.D. 47.

A triumph is decreed to Agricola, who resigns his command.

A.D. 85. Sallustius Lucullus, proprætor in Britain, killed by order of Domitian.


A.D. 86. Arviragus heads a revolt against the Ro

A.D. 96. Domitian is killed, September 18. Nerva succeeds.

A.D. 98. Nerva dies, January 21; is succeeded by Trajan.

A.D. 106. Neratius Marcellus præfect in Britain.
A.D. 117. Trajan dies about August 10.



The Britons endeavour to throw off the Roman yoke. A.D. 120. Hadrian visits Britain.

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Ituna (the Tyne and Solway Frith), to separate the Roman province from the unsubdued tribes; known as the Picts' Wall.

A.D. 124. Platorius Nepos, proprætor.

A.D. 130. Mænius Agrippa, præfect of the fleet on the British shore.

A.D. 133. Licinius Italicus, proprætor.

A.D. 138. Hadrian dies, July 10; is succeeded by Antoninus.

The Brigantes despoiled of great part of their land.

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A.D. 139. Lollius Urbicus, proprætor, constructs a rampart between the Forth and Clyde, on the site of the forts of Agricola; known as Graham's Dyke".

A.D. 140. Valerius Pansa proconsul; Seius Saturninus, præfect of the fleet.

A.D. 161. Antoninus dies, March 7; is succeeded by Marcus Aurelius, who takes for his colleague Lucius Verus.

Also called the Wall of Antoninus, in honour of the reigning emperor.

A.D. 162. Calphurnius Agricola, in consequence of a threatened revolt, is sent to Britain as lieutenant. A.D. 169. Lucius Verus dies, about the end of the


A.D. 180. Marcus Aurelius dies, March 17; is succeeded by Commodus.

A.D. 181 (circa). Lucius, king of the Britons, sends an embassy to Pope Eleutherus on religious affairs.

The northern Britons pass the rampart, and kill a
Roman general; they are defeated by Ulpius.
Marcellus sent by Commodus against them.

A.D. 183. Ulpius Marcellus concludes the war.
A.D. 184. Commodus takes in consequence the title

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• This title is given him by Nennius, who also informs us that his native name was Lever-maur (Great Light). Nennius ascribes the transaction to the year 164, and the Saxon Chronicle to 167. Archbisho Ussher has collected from various writers no fewer than twenty-three different dates, ranging from 137 to 199, to which it has been referred that given in the text is the one esteemed best supported by the Editors of the Monumenta. Lucius is traditionally said to have founded several bishops' sees, as at London and Llandaff. A brass plate in the church of St. Peter, Cornhill, London, professes to point out his place of sepulture.

A.D. 185. Perennis, prætorian præfect, is slain, as the enemy of the soldiers in Britain.

A.D. 187. Helvius Pertinax quells the revolt.

A.D. 192. Clodius Albinus, the commander of the Roman forces in Britain, is suspected by the emperor, and a successor named.

Death of Commodus, December 31.

A.D. 193. Severus becomes emperor, after the deaths of Pertinax and Didius; he confers the title of Cæsar on Albinus, who has possession of Britain.

Albinus is proclaimed emperor in Gaul.

A.D. 196. Virius Lupus, proprætor.

A.D. 197. Albinus, who had crossed into Gaul, is defeated and killed by Severus, near Lugdunum (Lyons). The account given by Herodian of this, the first battle fought by a British army on the continent, may be interesting.

"When the army of Severus had arrived in Gaul, there was some skirmishing in different places; but the decisive battle was near Lugdunum, a great and opulent city, in which having shut himself up, Albinus remained, but sent forth his forces to the fight. A severe conflict ensuing, the fate of victory on either side for a long time continued dubious; for the Britons yield nothing either in courage or sanguinary spirit to the Illyrians. Such noble armies, therefore, encountering, the overthrow of neither was easy; and, as some of the historians of that time who write for truth's sake and not for favour relate, that division of Albinus's army to which Severus with his army was opposed, had greatly the advantage; insomuch that he was put to flight, fell

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