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gave considerable largesses to his soldiers, and carried these shells to Rome that he might exhibit his spoils to the citizens."

A.D. 41. Caligula is assassinated, January 24. Claudius succeeds.

A.D. 43. Bericus, a fugitive whose surrender had been demanded, persuades Claudius to undertake the conquest of Britain.

Aulus Plautius invades the island, and defeats the Britons.

Vespasian (afterwards emperor) sent to Britain.

Claudius visits the island, captures the principal town of Cunobelin, (afterwards Camulodunum, now Maldon, in Essex,) and after sixteen days' residence in Britain returns to Rome.

A.D. 44. Claudius celebrates the "conquest of Britain" by a triumph at Rome, and, with his son, assumes the surname of Britannicus.

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A.D. 47. Aulus Plautius and Vespasian reduce the southern part of Britain, and obtain tribute from the more distant tribes®.

• The Orcades were among the number, according to Eutropius, but Tacitus asserts on the contrary that they were first discovered and subjugated by Agricola.

The Picts are subdued.

Simon Zelotes is said by Dorotheus to have suffered martyrdom in Britain about this time.

A.D. 50. Ostorius Scapula extends the conquests of his predecessors, builds a chain of forts between the rivers Nen and Avon, ravages both the west and the north, and defeats Caractacus, the king of the Silures.

Caractacus is treacherously delivered up to the Romans, and being sent to the emperor is by him set at liberty h

Ostorius is unsuccessful against the Silures, and dies. Valens and a Roman legion defeated by the Silures.

A.D. 51. Aulius Didius sent to command in Britain. Venusius, at the head of the Brigantes, maintains the


A.D. 54. Claudius dies, Oct. 13. Nero succeeds. A.D. 57. Veranius succeeds Aulus Didius as proprætor, and dies shortly after.

A.D. 58. Suetonius Paulinus sent to govern Britain; Agricola serves under him.

A.D. 61. The Britons, oppressed by Catus Decianus, the procurator, and Seneca, the money-lender, revolt. Boudicea, the widow of Prasutagus, king of the Iceni, heads the Britons.

Xiphiline, after recounting certain prodigies by which he says this event was heralded, adds, "She, however,

The country of the Cangii and the Brigantes, now Somersetshire and Yorkshire, and the more northern counties.

The people of South Wales, Herefordshire, and Monmouthshire. Welsh tradition ascribes the introduction of Christianity to Bri. tain, to Bran, the father of Caractacus, who is said to have been converted at Rome by the preaching of St. Paul.

who chiefly excited and urged them to fight against the Romans was Bunduica, who was deemed worthy to command them, and who led them in every battle; a Briton of royal race, and breathing more than female spirit. Having collected, therefore, an army to the number of about 120,000, she, after the Roman custom, ascended a tribunal made of marshy earth. She was of the largest size, most terrible of aspect, most savage of countenance, and harsh of voice: having a profusion of yellow hair which fell down to her hips, and wearing a large golden collar; she had on a parti-coloured floating vest drawn close about her bosom, and over this she wore a thick mantle connected by a clasp: such was her usual dress; but at this time she also bore á spear, that thus she might appear more formidable to all, and she spake after this manner," &c. The speech, beside being imaginary, is too long for quotation. "Having thus harangued, Bunduica led her army against the Romans, who were at that time without a chief, because Paulinus, then commander, was warring against Mona."

Verulamium, Camulodunum, and other Roman posts, captured, and a great slaughter made of the Romans and their allies.

Suetonius reduces Mona (Anglesey), but is recalled by the news of the revolt.

Londinium (London), already, according to Tacitus "famed for the vast conflux of traders, and her abundant commerce and plenty," destroyed by the Britons.

Petilius Cerealis and the Ninth Legion routed.
Catus Decianus escapes to Gaul.

¡See p. viii.

The Britons are defeated with terrible slaughter near Londinium by Suetonius.

Boudicea dies, and the Britons abandon the contest. A.D. 62. Suetonius recalled, and succeeded by Petronius Turpilianus.


A.D. 65. Trebellius Maximus is proprætor in Bri

St. Peter visits Britain, erects churches, and appoints bishops.

A.D. 67. Aristobulus, one of the seventy disciples, dies in Britain1.

A.D. 68. Nero put to death, June 9; succeeded by Galba.

A.D. 69. Galba is killed, January 16. Otho succeeds, and Vitellius also is chosen emperor; great dissension among the Roman legions in Britain in consequence.

Venusius again heads the Britons.

Trebellius Maximus, the Roman lieutenant, abandons his post.

Vettius Bolanus sent as lieutenant to Britain by Vitellius.

Agricola succeeds to the military command.
Vespasian becomes emperor.

A.D. 70. Petilius Cærialis, lieutenant in Britain Agricola serves under him, and the Fourteenth Legion is designated the "Conquerors of Britain."

A.D. 75. Julius Frontinus, proprætor in Britain.

She committed suicide, according to Tacitus; but according to Xiphiline she died a natural death, and was interred with great funereal splendour.

According to the Greek Menalogy.

1 Ibid.

A.D. 78. Agricola appointed to the command. In his first campaign he conquers Mona.

A.D. 79. Vespasian dies, June 24, and is succeeded by Titus.

Agricola's second campaign; he overruns the whole country, and induces many of the chiefs to give hostages and to allow their sons to receive a Roman education.

"To the end," says Tacitus," that these people, thus wild and dispersed over the country, and thence easily instigated to war, might by a taste of pleasures be reconciled to inactivity and repose, he first privately exhorted them, then publicly assisted them, to build temples, houses, and places of assembling. Upon such as were willing and assiduous in these pursuits he heaped commendations, and reproofs upon the lifeless and slow; so that a competition for this distinction and honour had all the force of necessity. He was already taking care to have the sons of their chiefs taught the liberal sciences, preferring the natural capacity of the Britons to the studied acquirements of the Gauls; and such was his success, that they who had lately scorned to learn the Roman language, were become fond of acquiring the Roman eloquence. Thus they began to honour our apparel, and the use of the Roman gown grew frequent among them. By degrees they proceeded to the incitements and charms of vice and dissoluteness, to magnificent galleries, sumptuous baths, and all the stimulations and elegance of banqueting. Nay, all this innovation was by the inexperienced styled politeness and humanity, when it was indeed part of their bondage."

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