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in form. Belonging to this class is the tumulus on the side of the hill known as Dinas, Llanfairfechan, and situated on Ty'n y llwyfan Farm.

Tumuli, with or without cistvaens, are very numerous on the uplands to the south of Penmaenmawr and Dwygyfylchi. Most of these were originally discovered by Mr. A. E. Elias (late of Penmaenmawr), who rendered the writer invaluable assistance in the fieldwork involved in recording them. The mounds may be divided roughly into the following groups :

1. Those between Moelfre and the Tal y fan-Foel Lwyd ridge.

2. Those near the Druids' Circle.

3. Those between Waen Gyrach and Tyddyn Grasod. 4. Those about 1 mile south of Caer Bach.

5. Those between Penmaenmawr Mountain and Moelfre.

1. The district between Moelfre and Tal y fan contains a great number of mounds. These are indicated by numbers on the accompanying maps (Figs. 1 and 1a).


To the south of Moelfre there is a ridge of slightly higher ground known as Bryniau Celyn, and this extends in a curve to the pass between Tal y fan and Foel Lwyd; along the top of Bryniau Celyn runs the old road, or track from Craig Lwyd to this pass. the west of this ridge is a swamp, and it is worthy of note that these tumuli are found on the slope of this ridge, in the form of a semicircle, the concave part of which faces the west. Crossing the stream known as Afon Maes y Bryn, there are several more tumuli, and they almost reach the western end of Foel Lwyd, close to Bwlch y Ddeufaen. In the swamp itself are to be found very few tumuli, one is, however, composed almost entirely of earth. It will thus be seen that from this position a magnificent view may be obtained of Anglesey and the Menai Straits. What more suitable place could be chosen for a burial ground, more especially when it is remembered that in earlier times these uplands had a fairly dense population?

The tumuli seem to occur in groups, possibly each group may have been the burial place of a family of the tribe. But, at the same time, it must not be forgotten that many more tumuli may have been covered up with vegetable growth.

The first group consists of Nos. 1, la, 2, and 3. No. 2 is important, as there seems to be a double cist, though possibly one of the stones may have been displaced. The diameters of the mounds Nos. 1, 2, and 3, are 12 feet, 24 feet, and 12 feet respectively.


Fig. 2.-Cist No. 17, Bryniau Ridge (Photograph by H. Foyn)

The next group situated to the south of No. 1 consists of nine mounds (Nos. 4-12), and three of these contain remains of cists. Nos. 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, and 12 are simple mounds. No. 6 has two sides of a cist remaining, which measure 40 inches and 21 inches, the cist lying from E.S.E. to N.N.W.; the enclosing circle has a diameter of 24 feet.

A little further south is a small group of four (Nos. 13-16), simple mounds.

To the S.S.E. of the last is a group of three (Nos. 17-19), arranged in triangular form. No. 17 contains a large cist (Fig. 2). Respectively, the length of the three inclosing stones are 3 feet, 4 feet, and 4 feet 3 inches, their thicknesses

being 5 inches, 4 inches, and 4 inches. There are two covering stones measuring 25 inches by 19 inches, and 26 inches by 16 inches. Mr. A. E. Elias found in this cist a flint flake or scraper.

All the above tumuli adjoin the track from Llanfairfechan,

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or from Craig Lwyd towards the pass between Tal y fan and Foel Lwyd.

Almost due south of No. 1, near the bottom of the dip, and near the source of the stream Afon Maes y Bryn, is an important group of seven (Nos. 20-26). No. 22 contains a good cist (Fig. 3), the direction of its length being N.N.W. by

S.S.E., two of the inclosing stones are 5 inches thick (15 inches above the ground), and 4 feet 3 inches and 2 feet 3 inches long respectively. There is a capstone close by, measuring 45 inches by 40 inches by 5 inches. The inclosing circle (33 feet diameter) is formed of a well-defined set of single stones set on edge, and inside are signs of two other burial-places.

No. 25, excavated by Mr. A. E. Elias, contained at the base a flat stone, under which was black mould. Numerous pieces of coarse gritstone also were found, and these seemed to show traces of fire. This circumstance was also noticed in No. 26.

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To the south-west of the last group, on the other side of the stream, and on the rising ground towards Foel Lwyd, is a fairly good hut-circle, and to the S.W. of this is No. 28 (Fig. 4), the well-defined mound of which (38 feet in diameter, and with a good outer circle of stones) contains a very good cist, lying from E.S.E. to W.N.W.

The two side stones are 51 inches and 64 inches respectively, from 6 inches to 10 inches thick and 24 inches high above the ground; the stone is 27 inches long, 24 inches deep, and 7 inches thick. The internal width of the cist increases uniformly, from 17 inches at the W.N.W. end to 24 inches.

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