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the N.E., the number is increased to three. portion of the outer wall on the N. W. side, missing on the plan, had been quarried away before the survey was commenced. For the greater extent the lines of the walls are marked only by fallen stones, and the original faces are not defined. Where there is any uncertainty, the outer faces are indicated by broken lines, and the walls are shown hatched in. Only where a face could be traced is it drawn definitely on plan, and the walls are blacked.
Practically every day devoted to the survey has been unfortunate in respect to the weather. At the best, a high and cold wind has been blowing; at the worst, operations have been rendered impossible, due to heavy rain.
At the Abergele Meeting of the Association a grant was made towards carrying on excavations at Braich y Ddinas. Permission was asked and readily obtained from Messrs. Brundrit and Co., the granite quarry proprietors, to excavate within the camp. Mr. J. H. Higson, the managing director, and Major Johnson, kindly did all in their power to facilitate the work. They made arrangements for men, usually employed in the quarries, to work under my directions. Excavations were carried on for one week-from September the 18th to the 23rd last. It is hoped to resume work next spring.
Five sites, referred to as A, B, C, D and E, were excavated.
The first hut examined was that known as "the double-hut," and marked c on the plan published in Arch. Camb. for 1877. It is situated within and close to the second rampart. A plan and section are here illustrated on Fig. 2. The large area of wall surface compared to that of free space enclosed will be noticed. The two portions are marked A and B on plan. main entrance, nearly 4 ft. wide, faces S.E. This communicates directly with the eastern end of the outer chamber, or room A. Immediately within the
entrance, a short passage, running nearly due N., leads to the inner chamber B. The outer wall, on the southern side, marked R on plan, is of great thickness, and is constructed in two stages, the outer of less
height than the inner portion. The ground falls from the N. to the S.
After clearing away the stones fallen down within the hut, it is remarkable that there was very little further accumulated débris.
Practically all finds were discovered within the upper 6 in. The solid surface appears to have been
virtually the old floor level, and this had a slight fall from N. to S. Several rough flattish stones were found at the floor level of hut B, evidently laid by hand, but they did not cover the whole of the surface within the walls. The floors were on loose rubble. That of the compartment or hut A was excavated to a depth of 2 ft. 2 in., and that of B to a depth of 1 ft. All earth was carefully riddled. Where the safety of the walls would have been imperilled the excavations were restricted. The walls appear to have been built on loose débris. The solid ground outside the entrance is 2 ft. 4 in. below the level of the threshold.
It was suggested by one member, when the Association visited Penmaenmawr on September 1st last, that the huts might have been originally roofed with stone. The total quantity of stones fallen down, within any of the huts excavated so far, would have been sufficient only to commence the smallest portion of a roof constructed with over-sailing courses.
The section on the line running N. to S., on Fig. 2, indicates the existing heights of the walls. The ground rises steeply to the N., and the walls in this direction are what is known as "built into the country," that is, the ground outside is at a higher level than the floors. and, in this instance, rises sharply from the level of the remaining tops of the walls. The N. wall is at present 4 ft. in height above the old floor level. The division wall between huts A and B is 3 ft. 3 in. high. It has a batter of about 1 ft. on its northern face. The internal division of the southern wall is 3 ft. 3 in. high; there is a drop of 1 ft. 6 in. to the outer division, and this is about 3 ft. 6 in. high above the external ground. The following is a list of the items found in huts A and B:
Beach pebble, oval, 7 in. by 3 in. by 13 in., partially worn on one side by rubbing.
Pebble, irregular, 74 in. by 14 in. by 1 in., one end worn, used as a pounder.
Quartz pebble, 4ğ in. by 3g in. by 23 in., both ends rubbed. Flat pebble, 5 in. by 2 in. by 1 in., one end rubbed both sides to a blunt axe-shaped edge.
Oval pebble, 4 in. by 23 in. by 1 in., probably used as rubber.
Pebble, 3 in. by 2 in. by 13 in., cracked, apparently by heat, pot-boiler.
Half pebble, 3 in. by 21 in., probably pot-boiler.
Round pebble, 12 in. by 14 in.
Pebble, 4 in. by 1 in. by in., probably rubber.
Seventeen other pebbles, several evidently pot-boilers.
Charcoal in entrance passage.
An iron ring, attached to a fragment of further iron. Internal diameter 1 in. Diameter of iron about
corroded. Found in position x on plan of double-hut. See illustration, Fig. 3.
Tooth (Bos Longifrons).
Bronze pin and spring of brooch of late La Tène type. The bow and foot, with the catch, are missing. The spring has two coils, one on either side of the pin and commencement of the bow. See illustration, Fig. 4. The four sides and the end are shown.
Two small pebbles, one red, § in. by in. by 3 in.
Four large-sized pebbles, two with ends worn, used as pounders.
Charcoal from centre of hut.
One fragment of a large pebble of conglomerate rock. One face worn perfectly smooth with the exception of end, which is still rough and projects about in. beyond rubbed surface. The original stone probably measured about 10 in. by 7 in. by 4 in. high. Roughly oval on plan. A rubbing-stone, possibly for saddle-quern. Very
pin of Bronze Brooch.
similar to many found at Pen y Gaer, above the Conway Valley. See illustration, Fig. 5.
Site C is situated within the inner wall, some little distance to the N.N.E. of the entrance. The results of the excavations on this site were disappointing. Nothing but a small fragment of charcoal was discovered. No signs of an entrance were found. There were no indications of a hut floor and we came to the conclusion that probably it had never been roofed in. The whole site was not excavated.
Huts D and E are within and close to the inner wall, at a slightly further distance from the entrance than