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covered the body was found the inscription which Professor Westwood reads:
The letters are deeply incised, and vary from 2 in. to 5 in. in length.
The only doubtful letter occurs in the third line after the EIV, forming the word "ejus." The stone is 5 ft. long, 2 ft. broad, and 4 in. thick. (Arch. Camb., 1847, p. 30.)
In Arch. Camb., 1908, Mr. W. B. Halhed points out that the word commencing the second line of the inscription is not 1AIII Jam, as rendered by Professor Westwood, but IATTI. He suggests that Brohomagli was the son of Iattos, with which GWRIAT is cognate. Mervyn Vrych, King of Gwynedd, was son of Gwriat, King of Ynys Manaw (Isle of Man).
The Members were shown an interesting "firedog" dug in a bog at Tyn y Coed, which Professor Dawkins declares to be a holder for amphora. Also a crowth and pibchorn, a Welsh Harp believed to have been made by David Morris of Llanrwst, c. 1690; and the Chair awarded as a prize at the Llanrwst Eisteddfod in 1788 for an Awdl on Goronwy Owen o'r Fon to the celebrated bard Twm o'r Nant, Thomas Edwards of Nant ucha, Gyffylling.
Carriages left Abergele, at the time arranged, for Conway, but the majority of the party elected to travel thither at a later hour by train. Conway Castle was the first place to be visited. Here the Mayor of Conway (Mr. H. Jones) gave the Members a cordial welcome to the ancient town, and "for the time being conferred, with great pleasure, on all present the Freedom of the Castle."
The President, in the name of the Association, thanked the Mayor (who was also Constable of the Castle, and as such illustrated a happy combination of Civic and Feudal rights) for granting them the privilege of visiting such an ancient and historic building. Mr. G. A. Humphreys, who has made a close study of the Castle and its history, acted as conductor, and pointed out the chief objects of interest. It was intended to make a new entrance to the Castle in
place of the old one, which had been found unsafe, and the present arrangement for admission, much criticised for its unsightliness and rococo style, was temporary.
It is one of the most complete and best-preserved examples of Medieval Military Architecture in Britain and a noted "Edwardian" specimen. The commencement of the building preceded Carnarvon Castle by only a few months. One of the earliest dates referring to the building is in the Liberate Roll, 1282, in which year Edward I was at Conway. Henry de Elreton is mentioned as the architect
The Castle area is divided into two parts, that nearest the river, the inner and stronger, being reserved for the Royal residence, Royal chapel, and apartments for retinue; while the other part was assigned to the garrison, and contains the soldiers' quarters, storerooms, garrison chapel, and stables, etc. A point of special interest is the Queen's Oratory or private chapel, with its rich little sanctuary, beautiful wall arcading and groined roof.
Mr. Harold Hughes gave a description of the Great Hall, which was completed in 1306. The Llywelyn Hall was commenced in the thirty-first year of Edward I, and occupied four years in building, costing £48 13s. 11d.
Conway Church was next visited, and the Cambrians were received by the Vicar (Rev. J. W. Roberts). Mr. Harold Hughes, who carried out a minute examination of the edifice about fifteen years ago, described briefly the chief features of interest. It stands on the site of the Cistercian Abbey, founded 1185, and endowed by Llywelyn the Great.
In 1245, the English forces established at Deganwy Castle, just across the river, raided Conway, plundered the Abbey, and probably burned down the greater portion of the Church.
At the rebuilding the chancel was widened on the south side. Edward I having established his sovereignty over the Principality, and peopled the town of Conway with English, removed the Abbey to Maenan. He acted with great tenderness towards the monks, left them all their lands and privileges, and preserved to them the presentation of their Conventual Church at Conway, now made parochial.
Very little remained of the original Cistercian Abbey, though no doubt portions of the interior were used for the existing building. The west doorway was not originally meant for that purpose, but had probably been the entrance to the Chapter House.
The tower (except the W. wall), together with the nave arcading, is 1290 to 1300 work, the S. wall of chancel c. 1245. The S. trangept and S. porch are early fourteenth century, N. vestry and N. porch late sixteenth century, whilst various windows, etc., were altered and renewed in 1878. This Church is much more important in plan and finer architecturally than any of the other old churches of this neighbourhood, and a comparison of the work of the Latin monks with the native Welsh productions is instructive. The arches are very crude work, placed on very much older and better
work. The fifteenth century rood screen, much restored, is the finest in the district, but not Welsh work. The fairly modern and crude tracery replaces the original. The whole is of beautiful design. The stalls, with their "poppy heads" and deeply carved emblems, the Tudor Rose, "Owl," "H" for Hooks or Holland, "W" for Williams, were much admired. Other features of interest were the old tiles fixed to the S. wall of the chancel, the Holy Water Stoup brackets by the N. and S. entrances, and the Dorothy Wynn tablet with crest and motto Mors fideli lucrum: Death to the faithful is gain, 1586.
Canon Rupert Morris said that the fine tenor bell was inscribed: Ave fidelis anima Werburga
In choro Virginum
Ora pro nobis dominum
Joh'es Byrchynshaw, Abbas Cestre.
This John Burchinshaw was Abbot of Chester in 1493, but was superseded twelve years later. He was reinstated in 1530, but died in 1535. He owned considerable property in the vicinity of Conway, and his family were people of importance.
Mr. Harold Hughes added that John Burchinshaw was a native of Llansannan.
In Records of Denbigh, p. 54, is a long Ode in his honour by Tudur Aled.
Several Welsh princes were interred within the Church, including Gruffydd ab Owen Gwynedd, in monk's cowl, 1220; Davydd ab Llywelyn, in 1246; Gruffydd, his brother, and Llywelyn the Great, in 1240, also in a cowl. Llywelyn's body was removed by the
monks to Maenan.
The Cromwellians, who took the town in 1646, are accused of considerable mutilation to the Church.
At Plas Mawr, the headquarters of the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art, the Cambrians were received by the veteran President, Mr. Clarence Whaite, and the Curator, Mr. J. R. Furness, who acted as guide. It was much admired as an excellent specimen of Elizabethan architecture, and in its plan a typical example of the transition from feudal customs to the exclusive habits of modern society, in the retention of the common dining hall, with a more complete isolation of the private apartments than was common in earlier times.
On the outer archway are carved the Royal Arms of England, and the date, 1585, appeared on the front until obliterated by the weather. Points of special interest are the stepped gables, watch tower, the variety of doorways, mullioned windows, "the hidingplace," two picturesque oriels in the gables, a curious little lantern light lighting the lower court, the fireplaces and overmantels, massive carved oak partitions, wainscoted walls, fixed seats, and 6TH SER., VOL. XII.
the beautifully-decorated walls and ceilings, with their quaint and varied heraldic devices in plaster. In the unusually fine and profuse display of plaster decoration and the then prevailing fashion of heraldic ornamentations may be traced the descent of Robert Wynne and Dorothy his wife, and his connection with the Royal House of Tudor and a number of notable Welsh and English families, the Eagles from the Arms of Owen Gwynedd, the Arms of Collwyn ap Tangno, the Englishmen's heads of Ednyfed Vychan's Arms, and, in constant evidence, the Arms of Queen Elizabeth, though her Majesty never slept there, as tradition alleged. A room is shown as the Queen's room, and out of this room a bed had been removed by Lady Augusta Mostyn, and was shown at Gloddaeth Hall as the bed on which the Virgin Queen had slept. Mr. Humphreys called attention to the fireplaces, so solidly constructed, with such unique types of masonry. The floors, however, in some parts had proved unsafe, and it had been found necessary to renew them.
Professor Dawkins explained that the large rounded stones in the fireplace, which excited much curiosity, were originally nodules found in the clay slate of the district, not rounded, as many supposed, by artificial means, but weathered out by the ice from the softer material. Glacial scratches were distinctly to be seen on them. Similar stones, Mr. Humphreys observed, were used by the farmers as weights.
After a vote of hearty thanks had been passed to Mr. Whaite and Mr. Furness, the party drove on to Church Walk, Llandudno, and were thence carried up quickly by tram-car to the
Cromlech at Maes-y-fachrell, Great Orme's Head.—This Cromlech was called by the old people "Lletty-y-filiast," the stone of the greyhound bitch. The chamber is made of four large upright stones supporting a large capstone, and the entrance faces the east. The measurements of the supports are:-S.W. stone, 3 ft. 8 in. high by 2 ft. 1 in.; N.W. stone, 3 ft. 8 in. by 7 ft. 6 in.; N.E. stone, 3 ft. 7 in. by 3 ft. 11 in.; N. stone, 3 ft. 7 in. by 3 ft. 5 in. The capstone is 7 ft. 6 in. long by 5 ft. 10 in. at the widest part. The Cromlech is on the property of Lord Mostyn, who, some years ago, had a strong iron railing placed around for its preservation. Mr. Humphreys assured the Association that Lord Mostyn was anxious that every care should be taken of the archæological remaius on his estate. He stated that the cromlech was now being preserved, but it had been seriously damaged by the thorn bush which grew near. The mound at the side had been cut through, but it was found to be displaced earth. The ground round about had been dug up, but nothing had been found. The only things found at any time were a piece of dark brown pottery about 2 in. in length and a bone. The pottery was lost about fifteen years ago.
Mr. Cunnington said the cist was a very small example of the barrow of the Neolithic period. It was a common type of the long barrow. Some of the barrows were 120 ft. long by 45 ft. to 50 ft.
wide, and had a single gallery with chambers going right and left. There were various kinds, and some had a single cist at the east end. It was to be regretted that the piece of pottery was lost as that would probably have given a clue to the date.
The party then journeyed by train to the Summit Hotel (657 ft.), where luncheon was served, after which St. Tudno's Church was visited, which the Rev. Llewelyn Hughes, Rector of Llandudno, described. He said that in the early Celtic period of the sixth century St. Tudno founded his cell at that place, and from that time until now-with the exception of a brief period in the nineteenth century-that spot had been the centre of religious worship and work. The Church was first restored in 1850, and completed in 1906. There were portions of the building belonging to the
eleventh or twelfth century. In the fifties a large quantity of rubbish was placed in the Church, but that was cleared, and the original level of the floor preserved. A noteworthy feature of the Church was its timber. It was before the days of oak, and chestnut was used. Portions of the wood had been found in the floor, and several articles were made from it. In fact, when the foundationstone of the newest church in Llandudno was laid by Lady Mostyn a mallet, made from the old wood of St. Tudno's Church, was used, so that the modern was hallowed by the ancient. The north wall of the Church was the finest specimen of early English masonry in the country. As regarded the formation of the Church there were seven steps, so that a child entering was gradually advanced until the altar was reached, over which there was a coloured boss representing the sacred wounds.
The Church is a simple parallelogram, with entrance in the west gable and a north entrance through a porch on N. side. To be noted